I remember three years ago, same time as now. It was April, and I was looking for an internship placement. I applied with many companies, and kept receiving rejections until finally I received a call from Schlumberger that I would be doing my internship with them in drilling and measurement segment.
Although companies were doing well at that time as there was no market downturn like the one we are in right now, getting an internship was still a difficult task to do. But when I see how extremely hard it is for students to secure their internship right now, I feel that we were somehow privileged.
With oil and gas companies cutting their costs down, reducing their workforce and scaling back their recruitment activities, students are met with a tough time securing an internship placement. To succeed in obtaining an internship placement in such a market downturn requires much effort, and different strategies. To help students with this task, here are three advices that I believe could help them secure their internship this year.
1. Act outside the box
It is often said "think outside the box", well, it is April now, and definitely there is no time to think, it is time to act. Acting inside the box would be to follow the traditional way of applying for an internship. That starts with preparing your resume and cover-letter. Getting companies' contacts details ready and then start to apply online or send your resume and cover-letter to the HR. Then you wait for the magic to happen.
While acting inside the box often works well in a better state of the oil market, it is highly unlikely that it works well in the current downturn. Oil companies are trying to reduce costs by laying off some of their employees and scaling back their hiring activities. That means your online application will often be rejected or you end up getting no response from companies. And this is the reason why I want you to act outside the box and here is how you do it.
Follow the above steps of applying for an internship and once you are done, you don't really have to wait for the magic to happen. Instead, I want you to prepare yourself to visit those companies. This may sound bizarre at first, but it is exactly what I want you to do. There is no need to start thinking if companies will agree to see you or not, or if they ask you to submit online rather than going to the company's office, because there is a strong reason why you should go.
With many applications sent over to oil and gas companies everyday not only for internship, but also for job, and the fact that companies have reduced their recruitment activities, it is highly likely that your applications will not be looked at. But think about it, what if you pay them a visit, show up in their office, and hopefully you manage to meet their HR, things could go differently. Isn't it?
While it is true that the majority of oil companies have online application and you are requested to apply there, don't forget that many companies allow drop-in resume during conferences and exhibitions which is the same as what you are going to do. You are going to visit the company and drop your resume. The only difference here is that sometimes you need to have an appointment to visit the company.
For companies that are hard to visit unless you have an appointment, there are two ways to get it. First of all, find someone you know working in that company. Ask them if they can help you to visit the company. Most of the time this person will be your senior or someone you met during a conference or any oil industry related activities. Just let them know why you want to visit the company and why they have to help you. Convincing them depends on your ability and skills to convince people. So give it a try.
The second way to secure an appointment is to call the company and ask for an appointment with the HR and tell them that you are a student looking for an internship and that you have an offer for the company which you will discuss with their HR or anyone who will meet you... I've just told you to say that you have an offer for the company, so what a student has to offer a company?
2. Offer the company to do a non-paid internship
If you are serious about getting your internship with oil and gas companies in such a market downturn, you should start thinking about a non-paid internship. Many oil and gas companies used to offer paid internship to students where they get a monthly payment while doing their training, however, since oil companies now are more focused on cutting costs down, they reduced or totally closed paid internships positions.
That being said, as a student you are left with no option but to adapt to the current circumstances. Adapting here means to change your strategy from looking for a paid internship to offering companies to do a non-paid internship. This is the offer that I have mentioned earlier which can get you an appointment with the company. Therefore, when you call the company to make an appointment, let them know that you are a student and that you have an offer regarding internship which you want to discuss with their HR.
So why you have to offer the companies to do a non-paid internship. First of all, it addresses the difficult time companies are going through and that you are aware about it. Besides that, it makes you stand out among other normal applicants and consequently increases your chances of securing a placement. It also shows your eagerness to give up money for knowledge and experience. These all are qualities that companies value, and by doing so you may not only get an internship placement but you may also secure your future job.
3. Search for internship outside the oil industry
The last advice that I want to share with you on how to secure your internship for this year is to look for internship opportunities outside the oil industry. Oil companies have reduced their openings for internships, and therefore many students will be left with no chance of securing their internship placement within the oil industry. In this case, my advice for you is to look for internship opportunities outside the oil industry.
In my perspective, internship is more about gaining your first experience on how the actual workplace looks like, how employees interact with each. It is about building your interpersonal skills more than building your technical skills as the time is limited. Therefore, in a time where getting an internship placement is hard in your own industry, it is advised that you look for an internship in a different industries, preferably ones that are close to yours.
Don't waste your time waiting for a response from oil and gas companies where you have applied for internship. Look around you, find opportunities in other industries, ask your friends or family to help get a placement for your internship in positions that can give you the same workplace experience, and help you build your interpersonal skills.
Those were the three advices that I wanted to share with you which could help you secure your internship placement in the oil industry or in other industries especially as the time left to start your internship is very short. One last reminder though is; don't forget to prepare an excellent resume and cover-letter as the above tips are only meant to make your resume and cover-letter reach to the HR's hand. And lastly, I wish you all the best in your internship hunting journey.
By Alahdal A. Hussein
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Throughout much of its history, the United States has imported more petroleum (which includes crude oil, refined petroleum products, and other liquids) than it has exported. That status changed in 2020. The U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) February 2021 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) estimates that 2020 marked the first year that the United States exported more petroleum than it imported on an annual basis. However, largely because of declines in domestic crude oil production and corresponding increases in crude oil imports, EIA expects the United States to return to being a net petroleum importer on an annual basis in both 2021 and 2022.
EIA expects that increasing crude oil imports will drive the growth in net petroleum imports in 2021 and 2022 and more than offset changes in refined product net trade. EIA forecasts that net imports of crude oil will increase from its 2020 average of 2.7 million barrels per day (b/d) to 3.7 million b/d in 2021 and 4.4 million b/d in 2022.
Compared with crude oil trade, net exports of refined petroleum products did not change as much during 2020. On an annual average basis, U.S. net petroleum product exports—distillate fuel oil, hydrocarbon gas liquids, and motor gasoline, among others—averaged 3.2 million b/d in 2019 and 3.4 million b/d in 2020. EIA forecasts that net petroleum product exports will average 3.5 million b/d in 2021 and 3.9 million b/d in 2022 as global demand for petroleum products continues to increase from its recent low point in the first half of 2020.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO), February 2021
EIA expects that the United States will import more crude oil to fill the widening gap between refinery inputs of crude oil and domestic crude oil production in 2021 and 2022. U.S. crude oil production declined by an estimated 0.9 million b/d (8%) to 11.3 million b/d in 2020 because of well curtailment and a drop in drilling activity related to low crude oil prices.
EIA expects the rising price of crude oil, which started in the fourth quarter of 2020, will contribute to more U.S. crude oil production later this year. EIA forecasts monthly domestic crude oil production will reach 11.3 million b/d by the end of 2021 and 11.9 million b/d by the end of 2022. These values are increases from the most recent monthly average of 11.1 million b/d in November 2020 (based on data in EIA’s Petroleum Supply Monthly) but still lower than the previous peak of 12.9 million b/d in November 2019.
In the past week, crude oil prices have surged to levels last seen over a year ago. The global Brent benchmark hit US$63/b, while its American counterpart WTI crested over the US$60/b mark. The more optimistic in the market see these gains as a start of a commodity supercycle stemming from market forces pent-up over the long Covid-19 pandemic. The more cynical see it as a short-term spike from a perfect winter storm and constrained supply. So, which is it?
To get to that point, let’s examine how crude oil prices have evolved since the start of the year. On the consumption side, the market is vacillating between hopeful recovery and jittery reactions as Covid-19 outbreaks and vaccinations lent a start-stop rhythm to consumption trends. Yes, vaccination programmes were developed at lightning speed; and even plenty of bureaucratic hiccoughs have not hampered a steady rollout across the globe. In the UK, more than 20% of adults have received at least one dose of the vaccines, with the USA not too far behind. Israel has vaccinated more than 75% of its population, and most countries should be well into their own programmes by the end of March. That acceleration of vaccinations has underpinned expectations of higher oil demand, with hopes that people will begin to drive again, fly again and buy again. But those hopes have been occasionally interrupted by new Covid-19 clusters detected and, more worryingly, new mutations of the virus.
Against this hopeful demand picture, supply has been managed. Squabbling among the OPEC+ club has prevented a more aggressive approach to managing supply than kingpin Saudi Arabia would like, but OPEC+ has still managed to hold itself together to placate the market that crude spigots will remain restrained. And while the UAE has successfully shifted OPEC+ quota plan for 2021 from quarterly adjustments to monthly, Saudi Arabia stepped into the vacuum to stamp its authority with a voluntary 1 million barrels per day cut. The market was impressed.
That combination of events over January was enough to move Brent prices from the low US$50/b level to the upper US$50/b range. However, US$60/b remained seemingly out of reach. It took a heavy dusting of snow across Texas to achieve that.
Winter weather across the northern hemisphere seemed harsher than usual this year. Europe was hit by two large continent-wide storms, while the American Northeast and Pacific Northwest were buffeted with quite a few snowstorms. Temperatures in East Asia were fairly cold too, which led to strong prices for natural gas and LNG to keep the population warm. But it was a major snowstorm that swept through the southern United States – including Texas – that had the largest effect on prices. Some areas of Texas saw temperatures as low as -18 degrees Celsius, while electricity demand surged to the point where grids failed, leaving 4.3 million people without power. A national emergency was declared, with over 150 million Americans under winter storm warning conditions.
For the global oil complex, the effects of the storm were also direct. Some of the largest oil refineries in the world were forced to shut down due to the Arctic conditions, further disrupting power and fuel supplies. All in all, over 3 mmb/d of oil processing capacity had to be idled in the wake of the storm, including Motiva’s Port Arthur, ExxonMobil’s Baytown and Marathon’s Galveston Bay refineries. And even if the sites were still running, they would have to contend to upstream disruptions: estimates suggest that crude oil production in the prolific Permian Basin dropped by over a million barrels per day due to power outages, while several key pipelines connecting Cushing, Oklahoma to the Texas Gulf Coast were also forced to shutter.
That perfect storm was enough to send crude prices above the US$60/b level. But will it last? The damage from the Texan snowstorm has already begun to abate, and even then crude prices did not seem to have the appetite to push higher than US$63/b for Brent and US$60/b for WTI.
Instead, the key development that should determine the future range for crude prices going into the second quarter of 2021 will be in early March, when the OPEC+ club meets once again to decide the level of its supply quotas for April and perhaps beyond. The conundrum facing the various factions within the club is this: at US$60/b, crude oil prices are not low enough to scare all members in voting for unanimous stricter quotas and also not high enough to rescind controlled supply. Instead, prices are at a fragile level where arguments can be made both ways. Russia is already claiming that global oil markets are ‘balanced’, while Saudi Arabia is emphasising the need for caution in public messaging ahead of the meeting. Saudi Arabia’s voluntary supply cut will also expire in March, setting up the stage for yet another fractious meeting. If a snow overrun Texans was a perfect storm to push crude prices to a 13-month high, then the upcoming OPEC+ meeting faces another perfect storm that could negate confidence. Which will it be? The answer lies on the other side of the storm.
Much like the year itself, the final quarter of 2020 proved to be full of shocks and surprises… at least in terms of financial results from oil and gas giants. With crude oil prices recovering on the back of a concerted effort by OPEC+ to keep a lid on supply, even at the detriment of their market share, the fourth quarter of 2020 was supposed to be smooth sailing. The tailwind of stronger crude and commodity prices, alongside gradual demand recovery, was expected to have smoothen out the revenue and profit curves for the supermajors.
That didn’t happen.
Instead, losses were declared where they were not expected. And where profits were to be had, they were meagre in volume. And crucially, a deeper dive into the financial results revealed worrying trends in the cash flow of several supermajors, calling into question the ability of these giants to continue on their capital expenditure and dividend plans, and the risks of resorting to debt financing in order to appease investors and yet also continue expanding.
Let’s start with the least surprising result of all. For months, ExxonMobil had been signalling that it would be taking a massive writedown on its upstream assets in Q4 2020, which could lead to a net loss for the quarter and the year. Unlike its peers, ExxonMobil had resisted making writedowns on the value of its crude-producing assets earlier in 2020. At the time, it stated that it had already built caution in the value assessments of those assets, reflecting ‘fair value’; not so long after that bold statement, ExxonMobil has been forced to backtrack and make a US$20.2 billion downward adjustment. Unusually, that meant that non-cash impairments aside, ExxonMobil actually eked out a tiny profit of US$110 million for the quarter on the strength of margins in the chemicals segment, but a full year loss of US$22.4 billion: the first ever annual loss since Exxon and Mobil merged in 1998. This was better than expected by Wall Street analysts, who would also be cheering the formation of ExxonMobil Low Carbon Solutions, in which the group would pump some US$3 billion through 2025 to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 20% from 2016 levels. That acknowledgement of a carbon neutral future is still far less ambitious than its European counterparts, but is a clear sign that ExxonMobil is starting to take the climate change element of its business more seriously.
If ExxonMobil managed to surprise in a good way, then its closest American rival did the opposite. Chevron had been outperforming ExxonMobil in quarterly results for a while now, but in Q4 2020 retreated with a net loss of US$665 million. That was narrower than the US$6.6 billion loss declared in Q4 2019, but still a shock since analysts were expecting a narrow profit. Calling 2020 ‘a year like no other’, the headwinds facing Chevron in Q4 2020 were the same facing all majors and supermajors, despite gains in crude prices, refining margins and fuel sales were still soft. Chevron’s cash flow was also a concern – as was ExxonMobil’s – which prompted chatter that the two direct descendants of JD Rockefeller’s Standard Oil were considering a merger. If so, then there is at least alignment on the climate topic: Chevron is also following the trail blazed by European supermajors in embracing a carbon neutral future, with CEO Michael Wirth conceding that Chevron may ‘not be an oil-first company in 2040’.
On the European side of the pond, that same theme of lowered downstream performance dragging down overall performance continued. But unlike the US supermajors, the likes of Shell, BP and Total were somewhat insulated from the Covid-19 blows at the peak of the pandemic as their opportunistic trading divisions capitalised on the wild swings in crude and fuel prices. That factor is now absent, with crude prices taking on a steady upward curve. That’s good for the rest of their businesses, but bad for trading, which thrives on uncertainty and volatility. And so BP reported a Q4 net profit of US$115 million, Shell followed with a Q4 net profit of US$393 million and Total closed out the earning season with industry-beating Q4 net profit of US$1.3 billion, above market expectations.
The softness of the financials hasn’t stopped dividend payouts, but has also been used by Europe’s Big Oil to set the tone for the next few decades of their existence. Total and BP paid a hefty premium to secure rights to build the next generation of UK wind farms; Total joined the Maersk-McKinney Moller Center for Zero Carbon Shipping to develop carbon neutral shipping solutions and splashed out on acquiring 2.2 GW of solar power projects in Texas; BP signed a strategic collaboration agreement with Russia’s Rosneft to develop new low carbon solutions; and aircraft carrier KLM took off with the first flight powered by synthetic kerosene that was developed by Shell through carbon dioxide, water and renewables. That’s a lot of a groundwork laid for the future where these giants can be carbon neutral by 2050.
The message from Q4 seems clear. Big Oil has barely begun its recovery from the Covid-19 maelstrom, and the road to a new normal remains long and painful. But this is also an opportunity to pivot; to set a new destination that is no longer business-as-usual, but embraces zero carbon ambitions. Even the American supermajors are slowly coming around, while the European continues to lead. Will majors in Asia, Latin America and Africa/Middle East follow? Let’s see what that attitude will bring over this new decade.
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