OPEC counts 13 countries among its membership, but one of them has long reigned as a first among equals.
Saudi Arabia, with its production of around 10.2 million b/d representing about a third of the group’s output — and about 11% of world supply — has served as OPEC’s de facto leader, its swing capacity traditionally leading the organization’s efforts to manage the market.
But last week’s failed talks in Doha to enact a production freeze saw a potential new oil producer group emerge with another player in the room that could have changed the dynamics of the market and challenged Saudi political eminence in world oil affairs.
The Doha summit of 18 nations included 11 OPEC members and several major non-OPEC producers, most notably Russia, whose output surpasses Saudi Arabia’s at close to 11 million b/d, according to its energy ministry.
Russia has geopolitical ambitions of its own that in many cases do not align with Saudi Arabia’s, particularly in the Middle East, where the two have clashed over the civil wars in Yemen and Syria.
But Russia and Saudi Arabia were among the leading architects of the freeze proposal, before Saudi Arabia reversed course as the Doha talks took place.
Had the talks been successful and a production freeze implemented, would Russia have found itself with an influential international perch in a new oil producer group that supplants OPEC’s role in overseeing the market?
The question is moot for now, as it was Saudi Arabia flexing its political muscle at the meeting, scuttling negotiations over its insistence that Iran be a party to any production freeze agreement and demonstrating that the market still is beholden to Saudi wishes.
But the failure of the talks, coming on the back of a fractious OPEC meeting in December, when the group scrapped its production ceiling altogether in a disagreement over output policy, has brought into sharp question the future of OPEC, which holds its next regular meeting June 2 in Vienna.
OPEC is dead, many commentators have written, as divergent interests have cracked the group and made any consensus on how to manage the market as unlikely as a blizzard in Doha.
“We’ve killed OPEC,” Texas Congressman Joe Barton said in a February interview with CNN, saying the December lifting of the US’ decades-old restrictions on crude exports will put a further squeeze on the producer group.
The Republican is not entirely wrong on premise, though his OPEC death declaration is a bit overwrought. After all, OPEC has ridden through price crashes and fractious relationships before.
OPEC still attracting new members
“OPEC is a bureaucratic organization; it is unlikely to go away anytime soon even if it never made another production decision,” said Jamie Webster, a Washington-based independent analyst. “It may be ineffective on the big decisions, but it is arguably still relevant in some form.”
Dysfunction and recent Doha embarrassment aside, OPEC membership still maintains sufficient cachet that Indonesia reactivated its suspended membership last year, while Gabon is also seeking to rejoin the group, he noted.
Even Washington-based consultant Bob McNally, who characterizes the current market as having entered a “post-OPEC” era, due to OPEC’s unwillingness to serve as swing producer, said the organization will remain as a conduit for its members to discuss market strategy.
“OPEC members are used to operating amidst high tensions among members,” said Bob McNally, a former energy adviser to US President George W. Bush. “They will exchange competing views in the meeting and to the press afterward, but this is par for the course.”
Beyond hosting the twice-annual meetings of its member oil ministers in Vienna, where it declares its output policies, OPEC also provides research on the market and issues regular reports to the public, and its secretary general, Abdalla el-Badri, speaks frequently at forums to represent producer views.
OPEC’s Vienna secretariat hosts a workforce of about 150, including researchers, statisticians, administrative staff and public relations personnel.
Amrita Sen, the London-based chief oil analyst with Energy Aspects, said to look for signs of obvious discord when judging OPEC’s ability to implement policy.
Russia may still have a role to play, as it appears it could be invited to consultations surrounding the June 2 meeting, though the impetus for now is on OPEC to find a détente among its own sparring factions.
“Historically, the most successful deals, particularly when OPEC is concerned, have worked best when agreed behind closed doors and official meetings have only been used to communicate the pre-agreed message,” Sen said. “That still remains the case.” — Herman Wang in Washington
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The vast Shah Deniz field in Azerbaijan’s portion of the South Caspian Sea marked several milestones in 2018. It has now produced a cumulative total of 100 billion cubic metres of natural gas since the field started up in 2006, with daily output reaching a new peak, growing by 12.5% y-o-y. At a cost of US$28 billion, Shah Deniz – with its estimated 1.2 trillion cubic metres of gas resources – has proven to be an unparalleled success, being a founding link of Europe’s Southern Gas Corridor and coming in relatively on budget and on time. And now BP, along with its partners, is hoping to replicate that success with an ambitious exploration schedule over the next two years.
Four new exploration wells in three blocks, along with a seismic survey of a fourth, are planned for 2019 and an additional three wells in 2020. The aggressive programme is aimed at confirming a long-held belief by BP and SOCAR there are more significant pockets of gas swirling around the area. The first exploratory well is targeting the Shafag-Asiman block, where initial seismic surveys suggest natural gas reserves of some 500 billion cubic metres; if confirmed, that would make it the second-largest gas field ever discovered in the Caspian, behind only Shah Deniz. BP also suspects that Shah Deniz itself could be bigger than expected – the company has long predicted the existence of a second, deeper reservoir below the existing field, and a ‘further assessment’ is planned for 2020 to get to the bottom of the case, so to speak.
Two wells are planned to be drilled in the Shallow Water Absheron Peninsula (SWAP) block, some 30km southeast of Baku, where BP operates in equal partnership with SOCAR, with an additional well planned for 2020. The goal at SWAP is light crude oil, as is a seismic survey in the deepwater Caspian Sea Block D230 where a ‘significant amount’ of oil is expected. Exploration in the onshore Gobustan block, an inland field 50km north of Baku, rounds up BP’s upstream programme and the company expects that at least one seven wells of these will yield a bonanza that will take Azerbaijan’s reserves well into the middle of the century.
Developments in the Caspian are key, as it is the starting node of the Southern Gas Corridor – meant to deliver gas to Europe. Shah Deniz gas currently makes its way to Turkey via the South Caucasus Gas pipeline and exports onwards to Europe should begin when the US$8.5 billion, 32 bcm/y Trans-Anatolian Pipeline (TANAP) starts service in 2020. Planned output from Azerbaijan currently only fills half of the TANAP capacity, meaning there is room for plenty more gas, if BP can find it. From Turkey, Azeri gas will link up to the Trans-Adriatic Pipeline in Greece and connect into Turkey, potentially joined by other pipelines projects that are planned to link up with gas production in Israel. This alternate source of natural gas for Europe is crucial, particularly since political will to push through the Nordstream-2 pipeline connecting Russian gas to Germany is slackening. The demand is there and so is the infrastructure. And now BP will be spending the next two years trying to prove that the supply exists underneath Azerbaijan.
BP’s upcoming planned exploration in the Caspian:
When it was first announced in 2012, there was scepticism about whether or not Petronas’ RAPID refinery in Johor was destined for reality or cancellation. It came at a time when the refining industry saw multiple ambitious, sometimes unpractical, projects announced. At that point, Petronas – though one of the most respected state oil firms – was still seen as more of an upstream player internationally. Its downstream forays were largely confined to its home base Malaysia and specialty chemicals, as well as a surprising venture into South African through Engen. Its refineries, too, were relatively small. So the announcement that Petronas was planning essentially, its own Jamnagar, promoted some pessimism. Could it succeed?
It has. The RAPID refinery – part of a larger plan to turn the Pengerang district in southern Johor into an oil refining and storage hub capitalising on linkages with Singapore – received its first cargo of crude oil for testing in September 2018. Mechanical completion was achieved on November 29 and all critical units have begun commissioning ahead of the expected firing up of RAPID’s 300 kb/d CDU later this month. A second cargo of 2 million barrels of Saudi crude arrived at RAPID last week. It seems like it’s all systems go for RAPID. But it wasn’t always so clear cut. Financing difficulties – and the 2015 crude oil price crash – put the US$27 billion project on shaky ground for a while, and it was only when Saudi Aramco swooped in to purchase a US$7 billion stake in the project that it started coalescing. Petronas had been courting Aramco since the start of the project, mainly as a crude provider, but having the Saudi giant on board was the final step towards FID. It guaranteed a stable supply of crude for Petronas; and for Aramco, RAPID gave it a foothold in a major global refining hub area as part of its strategy to expand downstream.
But RAPID will be entering into a market quite different than when it was first announced. In 2012, demand for fuel products was concentrated on light distillates; in 2019, that focus has changed. Impending new International Maritime Organisation (IMO) regulations are requiring shippers to switch from burning cheap (and dirty) fuel oil to using cleaner middle distillate gasoils. This plays well into complex refineries like RAPID, specialising in cracking heavy and medium Arabian crude into valuable products. But the issue is that Asia and the rest of the world is currently swamped with gasoline. A whole host of new Asian refineries – the latest being the 200 kb/d Nghi Son in Vietnam – have contributed to growing volumes of gasoline with no home in Asia. Gasoline refining margins in Singapore have taken a hit, falling into negative territory for the first time in seven years. Adding RAPID to the equation places more pressure on gasoline margins, even though margins for middle distillates are still very healthy. And with three other large Asian refinery projects scheduled to come online in 2019 – one in Brunei and two in China – that glut will only grow.
The safety valve for RAPID (and indeed the other refineries due this year) is that they have been planned with deep petrochemicals integration, using naphtha produced from the refinery portion. RAPID itself is planned to have capacity of 3 million tpa of ethylene, propylene and other olefins – still a lucrative market that justifies the mega-investment. But it will be at least two years before RAPID’s petrochemicals portion will be ready to start up, and when it does, it’ll face the same set of challenging circumstances as refineries like Hengli’s 400 kb/d Dalian Changxing plant also bring online their petchem operations. But that is a problem for the future and for now, RAPID is first out of the gate into reality. It won’t be entering in a bonanza fuels market as predicted in 2012, but there is still space in the market for RAPID – and a few other like in – at least for now.
RAPID Refinery Factsheet:
Tyre market in Bangladesh is forecasted to grow at over 9% until 2020 on the back of growth in automobile sales, advancements in public infrastructure, and development-seeking government policies.
The government has emphasized on the road infrastructure of the country, which has been instrumental in driving vehicle sales in the country.
The tyre market reached Tk 4,750 crore last year, up from about Tk 4,000 crore in 2017, according to market insiders.
The commercial vehicle tyre segment dominates this industry with around 80% of the market share. At least 1.5 lakh pieces of tyres in the segment were sold in 2018.
In the commercial vehicle tyre segment, the MRF's market share is 30%. Apollo controls 5% of the segment, Birla 10%, CEAT 3%, and Hankook 1%. The rest 51% is controlled by non-branded Chinese tyres.
However, Bangladesh mostly lacks in tyre manufacturing setups, which leads to tyre imports from other countries as the only feasible option to meet the demand. The company largely imports tyre from China, India, Indonesia, Thailand and Japan.
Automobile and tyre sales in Bangladesh are expected to grow with the rising in purchasing power of people as well as growing investments and joint ventures of foreign market players. The country might become the exporting destination for global tyre manufacturers.
Several global tyre giants have also expressed interest in making significant investments by setting up their manufacturing units in the country.
This reflects an opportunity for local companies to set up an indigenous manufacturing base in Bangladesh and also enables foreign players to set up their localized production facilities to capture a significant market.
It can be said that, the rise in automobile sales, improvement in public infrastructure, and growth in purchasing power to drive the tyre market over the next five years.