Stuck pipe is a common worldwide drilling problem in terms of time and financial cost. It causes significant increases in non-productive time and losses of millions of dollars each year in the petroleum industry. When the drill string is no longer free to move up, down, or rotate as desired, the drill pipe is stuck. Sticking can occur while drilling, making a connection, logging, testing or during any kind of operation which involves leaving the equipment in the hole.
In other words, the drill string is stuck when the static force necessary to make it move exceeds the capabilities of the rig or the tensile strength of the drill pipes. Stuck pipe can result in breaking apart of the drill string in the hole, thus loosing tools in the hole that requires time and cost to perform fishing job, of course if it works. The results of a stuck pipe are very costly and include:
A) Lost drilling time while freeing the pipe.
B) Time and cost of fishing: trying to pull out of the hole the broken part of the BHA.
C) Abandon the tool in the hole it is very difficult or expensive to remove it.
Generally stuck pipe problems are divided into two categories: mechanical sticking and differential sticking. Mechanical sticking usually occurs when the drill string is moving and is caused by a physical obstruction or restriction. Mechanical sticking can be classified into two major subgroups: a) Hole pack-off and bridges; stuck pipe which are related to wellbore instability or settled cuttings are in this category and b) wellbore geometry interferences; this refers to stuck pipe which are related to the condition of wellbore geometry such as key seats or an under-gage hole.
Commonly, differential sticking occurs when the drill string or tool is stationary(or sometimes when it is moving very slowly). Many oil and gas reservoirs are mature and becoming increasingly depleted of hydrocarbons, which increases the risk involved with the stuck pipe. This is due to the fact that decreasing pore pressure increases the chance of stuck pipe. Therefore, the risk of differentially stuck pipe increases when drilling depleted reservoirs and avoids when drilling underbalanced. It should always be considered the probability of freeing stuck pipe successfully diminishes rapidly with time.
S. R. Shadizadeh, F. Karimi, M. Zoveidavianpoor; "Drilling Stuck Pipe Prediction in Iranian Oil Fields:An Artificial Neural Network Approach"; Iranian Journal of Chemical Engineering Vol. 7, No. 4 (Autumn), 2010, IAChE
A. M. Paiaman and B. D. Al-Anazi; "Feasibility of decreasing pipe sticking
probability using nanoparticles"; NAFTA 60 (12) 645-647 (2009)
Nediljka Gaurina-Medjimurec and Borivoje Pasic; "Risk Due to Pipe Sticking"
Ali Seyyedalangi- M.Sc in Drilling Engineering
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Many of Indonesia’s oil and gas fields, both on and offshore, are coming to the end of their commercially viable operational lifespan. More than 60% of Indonesia’s oil and more than 30% of gas production comes from late-life-cycle resources spread across the world's largest island country. Despite investment and use of enhanced oil field recovery measures, as well as increasing automation to extend the economic lifespan of these assets, decommissioning will soon become necessary.
However Indonesia, like many countries new to the prospect of decommissioning energy infrastructure, face many key technological, fiscal, environmental, regulatory and industrial capacity issues, which need to be addressed by both government and industry decision makers.
This report, commissioned by the consulting and advisory arm of London and Aberdeen based Precision Media & Communications aims to takes a look at many of the issues Indonesia and other South East Asian oil producing nations are likely to face with the prospect of decommissioning the region's oil and gas aging energy infrastructure both onshore and offshore... To find out more Click here
Headline crude prices for the week beginning 2 December 2019 – Brent: US$61/b; WTI: US$55/b
Headlines of the week
The Global Small-Scale LNG Market is projected to grow from 30.8 MTPA in 2016 to 48.3 MTPA by 2022, at a CAGR of 6.7% between 2017 and 2022. The small-scale LNG market across the globe is driven by their increasing LNG demand from remote locations by applications, such as industrial & power, and the ability to transport LNG over long distances without the need for heavy investment such as pipelines. By terminal type, regasification terminal is expected to grow at a highest CAGR between 2017 and 2022. The increasing demand for LNG from the remote locations and global commoditization of LNG are some of the major factors that are driving the demand for small-scale LNG in this segment.
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The Linde Group (Germany), Wärtsilä (Finland), Honeywell International Inc. (U.S.), General Electric (U.S.), and Engie (France), among others are the leading companies operating in the small-scale LNG market. These companies are expected to account for significant shares of the small-scale LNG market in the near future.
Critical questions the report answers:
Growth Drivers are :
Energy cost advantage of LNG over alternate energy sources for end-users
Heavy duty transport companies save approximately 30% on fuel costs on LNG-fueled trucks, compared to diesel fueled trucks, and produce 30% lower emissions. Air pollution from diesel engines is one of the biggest concerns, especially in areas that struggle to meet air-quality standards. On the other hand, natural gas causes complete combustion and fewer emissions than diesel. It is estimated that increasing environmental concerns from the utilization of diesel vehicles is likely to increase the adoption of green fuel technologies such as natural gas. In the case of electric power generation, natural gas engines below 150 KW are more cost effective than oil fueled engines. Fuel cost is one of the major cost for road transportation, which is strongly subject to excise taxation. Typically, an LNG-fueled Volvo FM truck can travel up to 600 km with LNG. With an additional 150 litres of diesel, it can travel up to 1,000 km without refuelling. Thus, reducing the cost of travel. With additional LNG liquefaction capacity expected to come online in the next few years, an oversupply of LNG is expected, which will drive the price of LNG further lower. Considering all these factors, both developed and developing countries are undertaking feasibility studies to recognize the techno-economics of shifting their economies from diesel to natural gas. Therefore, the cheap price of small-scla LNG over others alterantive fuels will drive the growth during the forecast period.
Small-scale LNG terminals are regarded as facilities, including liquefaction and regasification terminals, with a capacity of less than 1 million tons per annum (MTPA) within the scope of this study. It includes the LNG produced from small-scale liquefaction terminals and regasified at small-scale regasification terminals for catering to applications such as LNG-fueled heavy-duty transport, LNG-fueled ships, and industrial & power generation.
North America small-scale LNG market is projected to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast period.
The North America small-scale LNG market is projected to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast period. In North America, most of the small-scale LNG demand in industrial & power applications is met through peak shaving facilities. The peak shaving facilities are used to meet adequate supply of LNG to address the peak demand. In 2015, there were more than 100 peak shaving facilities in the U.S., among which one-half of the peak shaving facilities were located in the Northeast, while a quarter of them were located in the Midwest. Currently, the U.S. has among the highest number of peak shaving plants. However, less than 10% of them are available for any other use due to the current electricity demand. The commissioning of small-scale liquefaction plants can expand the peak shaving capacities in the region.
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