Repowering older wind turbines, which involves replacing aging turbines or components, is becoming more common in the United States as the turbine fleet ages and as wind turbine technology advances. Newer turbines tend to be larger and installed at greater heights, allowing for more capacity per turbine. About 12% of the wind turbines in the United States were installed before 2000, but these turbines make up only 2% of the installed wind electricity generating capacity.
Federal production tax credits provide an incentive to increase electricity generation from existing wind turbines. In December 2015, the production tax credit (PTC) was extended until the end of 2019. The four-year extension and legislated phase-out of the PTC is expected to encourage many asset owners to repower existing wind facilities to requalify them to receive another 10 years of tax credits. A facility may still qualify for the PTC as long as at least 80% of the property’s value is new. This provision allows many owners to repower existing turbines without completely replacing them.
Fully repowering wind turbines involves decommissioning and removing existing turbines and replacing them with newer turbines at the same project site. Full repowering has mostly occurred in California, where many turbines were installed at high-wind sites before 1990.
Partial repowering involves leaving some portion of the existing wind turbine and replacing select components. By partially repowering, owners can increase hub heights and rotor diameters to produce more energy.
Although wind turbines are designed with lifespans of between 20 and 25 years, wind capacity factors decline with age as mechanical parts degrade, according to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Wind Technologies Market Report. The United Kingdom’s Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council in 2014 indicated that, on average, the output of wind turbines declines by 1.6% each year. Repowering can increase the output of a wind facility, improve reliability, and extend the life of a facility by taking advantage of advances in wind turbine technology.
Newer turbines tend to rotate much more slowly and quietly than older, smaller turbines, turning at 10 to 20 revolutions per minute (rpm) instead of 40 to 60 rpm. Slower wind turbine rotations alleviate issues such as bird mortality and shadow flicker.
Repowering generally requires significantly less investment compared with new projects. However, repowering wind turbines does present some challenges. For example, the risk of failure may increase when reusing components such as towers and foundations that were designed for smaller turbines. Other challenges may include renegotiating power purchase agreements, interconnection agreements, and leases.
According to General Electric (GE), the largest wind turbine installer in the United States, repowering wind turbines can increase the fleet output by 25% and can add 20 years to turbine life from the time of the repower. General Electric has repowered at least 300 wind turbines, and the company expects this market to grow. MidAmerican Energy recently awarded a contract to GE Renewable Energy to repower as many as 706 older turbines at several wind farms in Iowa. After repowering, each turbine is expected to generate between 19% and 28% more electricity.
The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has indicated that annual U.S. wind repowering investment has the potential to grow to $25 billion by 2030. EIA data indicate that three projects are currently planned for repowering: Mendota Hills, LLC in Illinois and Sweetwater Wind 2 LLC in Texas are scheduled for repowering in 2018, and Windpark Unlimited 1 in California is scheduled for repowering in 2022.
In addition, Rocky Mountain Power has announced its intent to repower wind turbines in Wyoming and is currently awaiting a public hearing on the issue. NextEra Energy is planning to repower two wind farms in Texas by the end of this year.
More information about electric generators in the United States is available in EIA’s Annual Electric Generator Report. The early release of the 2016 version of this report was made available in August; the final version is scheduled for release in November.
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Year-over-year increases in U.S. proved reserves resulted in record-high levels of crude oil and lease condensate, up 12%, and natural gas up 9% in 2018, according to the U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-End 2018 report. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) published its annual reserves report today, based on data reported on the survey Form EIA-23L, Annual Report of Domestic Oil and Gas Reserves, which highlighted the new records for reserves.
|Crude oil and lease condensate|
trillion cubic feet
|2017 U.S. proved reserves||39.2||42.0||464.3|
|Net change to U.S. proved reserves||+4.7||+5.1||+40.2|
|2018 U.S. proved reserves||43.8||47.1||504.5|
Strong oil and natural gas prices in 2018 drove the increase in oil and natural gas proved reserves in the United States to these record levels.
“The United States increased its proved reserves of oil and natural gas, establishing new records in 2018 according to a recently released EIA report,” EIA Administrator Linda Capuano said in a statement. “Crude oil and lease condensate increased by 12% from 2017, and natural gas climbed 9% during the same reporting period.”
Texas saw the largest net increase in natural gas proved reserves of all states in 2018 (22.9 trillion cubic feet (Tcf)) with the largest share of the increase coming from the Wolfcamp/Bone Spring shale play in the Permian Basin. The next largest gain in natural gas proved reserves in 2018 was in Pennsylvania (14.2 Tcf), with the largest share of the increase coming from the Marcellus shale play of the Appalachian Basin.
Proved reserves are those volumes of oil and natural gas that geological and engineering data demonstrate with reasonable certainty to be recoverable in future years from known reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions. U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2018 is available at:
The product described in this press release was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA’s data, analysis, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in the product and press release therefore should not be construed as representing those of the Department of Energy or other federal agencies.
EIA Program Contact: Steven G. Grape, 202-586-1868, [email protected]
For media inquiries contact: [email protected]
The global oilfield scale inhibitor market was valued at USD 509.4 Million in 2014 and is expected to witness a CAGR of 5.40% between 2015 and 2020. Factors driving the market of oilfield scale inhibitor include increasing demand from the oil and gas industry, wide availability of scale inhibitors, rising demand for biodegradable and environment-compatible scale inhibitors, and so on.
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The oilfield scale inhibitor market is experiencing strong growth and is mainly driven by regions, such as RoW, North America, Asia-Pacific, and Europe. Considerable amount of investments are made by different market players to serve the end-user applications of scale inhibitors. The global market is segmented into major geographic regions, such as North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of the World (RoW). The market has also been segmented on the basis of type. On the basis of type of scale inhibitors, the market is sub-divided into phosphonates, carboxylate/acrylate, sulfonates, and others.
Carboxylate/acrylic are the most common type of oilfield scale inhibitor
Among the various types of scale inhibitors, the carboxylate/acrylate type holds the largest share in the oilfield scale inhibitor market. This large share is attributed to the increasing usage of this type of scale inhibitors compared to the other types. Carboxylate/acrylate meets the legislation requirement, abiding environmental norms due to the absence of phosphorus. Carboxylate/acrylate scale inhibitors are used in artificial cooling water systems, heat exchangers, and boilers.
RoW, which includes the Middle-East, Africa, and South America, is the most dominant region in the global oilfield scale inhibitor market
The RoW oilfield scale inhibitor market accounted for the largest share of the global oilfield scale inhibitor market, in terms of value, in 2014. This dominance is expected to continue till 2020 due to increased oil and gas activities in this region. The Middle-East, Africa, and South America have abundant proven oil and gas reserves, which will enable the rapid growth of the oilfield scale inhibitor market in these regions. Among the regions in RoW, Africa’s oilfield scale inhibitor market has the highest prospect for growth. Africa has a huge amount of proven oil reserves and is one of the leading oil producing region in the World. But political unrest coupled with lack of proper infrastructures may negatively affect oil and gas activities in this region.
Major players in this market are The Dow Chemical Company (U.S.), BASF SE (Germany), AkzoNobel Oilfield (The Netherlands), Kemira OYJ (Finland), Solvay S.A. (Belgium), Halliburton Company (U.S.), Schlumberger Limited (U.S.), Baker Hughes Incorporated (U.S.), Clariant AG (Switzerland), E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (U.S.), Evonik Industries AG (Germany), GE Power & Water Process Technologies (U.S.), Ashland Inc. (U.S.), and Innospec Inc. (U.S.).
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Headline crude prices for the week beginning 9 December 2019 – Brent: US$64/b; WTI: US$59/b
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