12 members of SPE Heriot-Watt University Malaysia Student Chapter had their first geological trip at Miri, Sarawak from 11th until 14th of January 2018 consisting of 2nd and 3rd years of Petroleum Engineering students of the said institution with one accompanying staff from The School Energy, Geoscience, Infrastructure and Society (EGIS).
With the objective of exposing the participants to geology concepts, they learn numerous technical geological knowledge which includes:
Throughout the trip, these 13 people had covered:
At Kampung Bakam outcrop, there is a flat layer of clay and sandstone with a distance of 3.7m from the entrance. Members used auger, a manual hand coring equipment and drilled up to 133cm (52 in.) depth into the bed to see its sedimentary structure but could only find clay and no rigid bedding structure. This place is is said to have the same characteristics to one of the hydrocarbon fields in Sarawak, leading the members to seek for oil seepage. Across the floor of the outcrop, a small stream comes from the higher part of the outcrop creating modern ripples.
At the coastal road, the 52°NW dipping outcrop lays flat on the surface of Earth and participants are seen standing on the outcrop 5m from the entrance.
At the strand of Bungai and Peliau beach, expecting to see strands of dipped beds from the remnants of eroded beds from Tusan, participants could only find sand sediments with a loose conglomerate sample alongside the beach as the weather was raining heavily and the tide rises.
Reaching Tusan cliff, knowing that a landslide had happened 2 days before the arrival, members gave extra precaution going down the cliff. The situation worsens when a tide is rising and an approximate wave of 2m can be seen from afar but resides slowly reaching shallower area nearing the cliff. Due to this weather, auger coring could not be done. A 32°W dipping bed is seen and ancient beds and sedimentary structure can be logged until 143cm here. Members logged the area as sandstone and clay inter-bedded sandstone with visible fractures. At another point at the cliff, a 217cm log can be done where the bed is clearly dipping towards the sea and a laminar structure with erosion occurred.
At Lopeng outcrop, quickmud (similar to quicksand) nearly along the 38.2m outcrop dipping 76°W overfills the area due to human activity where the sediments become soft and bubbly with visible small channels. A fault and disconformity are obvious at this outcrop where beds are seen to laterally disconnect due to the geological happenings. At a distance of 4.1m from the entrance, the outcrop is logged with clay and interbedded sandstone with medium grain size sands and a loose shell-like fossil is found.
Lambir outcrop is quite hidden into the road as it is seen as a disposable garbage area by modern human activities. This place of 42m elevation above sea level is expected to be cleared by the government as it might no longer posses any geological findings. Older and younger sediments at this area shows different occurrences where the older one at a length of 61.5m is filled with mudcrack and burrows alongside the clay and sandstone beds, and an obvious hummocky cross-stratified bedding; concluding that this was a shallow marine environment. Spending nearly 2 hours here, participants gathered a number of fossils traces and very visible burrows on loose samples. Dipping 20°SE are beds of clay, sandstone and interbedded clay and sandstones.
A documentary of this trip can be viewed at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pavDPbh1Nik&t=21s with credits to the videographer, Izzat Isa.
This trip could not be possible without the help of the Board of Directors of SPE HWUM SC in organising, planning and carrying out the event itinerary before, during and after the trip.
An educational visit to Curtin University Malaysia hosted by Felicity Valerie Karim exposes the students to the facilities of Petroleum Engineering students in Curtin University Malaysia and wishes to have future collaboration between the two SPE student chapters.
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Headline crude prices for the week beginning 2 December 2019 – Brent: US$61/b; WTI: US$55/b
Headlines of the week
The Global Small-Scale LNG Market is projected to grow from 30.8 MTPA in 2016 to 48.3 MTPA by 2022, at a CAGR of 6.7% between 2017 and 2022. The small-scale LNG market across the globe is driven by their increasing LNG demand from remote locations by applications, such as industrial & power, and the ability to transport LNG over long distances without the need for heavy investment such as pipelines. By terminal type, regasification terminal is expected to grow at a highest CAGR between 2017 and 2022. The increasing demand for LNG from the remote locations and global commoditization of LNG are some of the major factors that are driving the demand for small-scale LNG in this segment.
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The Linde Group (Germany), Wärtsilä (Finland), Honeywell International Inc. (U.S.), General Electric (U.S.), and Engie (France), among others are the leading companies operating in the small-scale LNG market. These companies are expected to account for significant shares of the small-scale LNG market in the near future.
Critical questions the report answers:
Growth Drivers are :
Energy cost advantage of LNG over alternate energy sources for end-users
Heavy duty transport companies save approximately 30% on fuel costs on LNG-fueled trucks, compared to diesel fueled trucks, and produce 30% lower emissions. Air pollution from diesel engines is one of the biggest concerns, especially in areas that struggle to meet air-quality standards. On the other hand, natural gas causes complete combustion and fewer emissions than diesel. It is estimated that increasing environmental concerns from the utilization of diesel vehicles is likely to increase the adoption of green fuel technologies such as natural gas. In the case of electric power generation, natural gas engines below 150 KW are more cost effective than oil fueled engines. Fuel cost is one of the major cost for road transportation, which is strongly subject to excise taxation. Typically, an LNG-fueled Volvo FM truck can travel up to 600 km with LNG. With an additional 150 litres of diesel, it can travel up to 1,000 km without refuelling. Thus, reducing the cost of travel. With additional LNG liquefaction capacity expected to come online in the next few years, an oversupply of LNG is expected, which will drive the price of LNG further lower. Considering all these factors, both developed and developing countries are undertaking feasibility studies to recognize the techno-economics of shifting their economies from diesel to natural gas. Therefore, the cheap price of small-scla LNG over others alterantive fuels will drive the growth during the forecast period.
Small-scale LNG terminals are regarded as facilities, including liquefaction and regasification terminals, with a capacity of less than 1 million tons per annum (MTPA) within the scope of this study. It includes the LNG produced from small-scale liquefaction terminals and regasified at small-scale regasification terminals for catering to applications such as LNG-fueled heavy-duty transport, LNG-fueled ships, and industrial & power generation.
North America small-scale LNG market is projected to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast period.
The North America small-scale LNG market is projected to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast period. In North America, most of the small-scale LNG demand in industrial & power applications is met through peak shaving facilities. The peak shaving facilities are used to meet adequate supply of LNG to address the peak demand. In 2015, there were more than 100 peak shaving facilities in the U.S., among which one-half of the peak shaving facilities were located in the Northeast, while a quarter of them were located in the Midwest. Currently, the U.S. has among the highest number of peak shaving plants. However, less than 10% of them are available for any other use due to the current electricity demand. The commissioning of small-scale liquefaction plants can expand the peak shaving capacities in the region.
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Major Market Developments:
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