It might seem hard to imagine, but from the 1960’s to 70’s, Pertamina was considered one of the best run national oil companies in the world. In fact, Malaysia’s Petronas was modelled and structured around Pertamina, including its pioneering use of Production Sharing Contracts (PSC) that characterise many oil producing countries today. However in 2018, that statement seems rather distant now. Because just last week, the Indonesian government stepped in once again to terminate President Director and CEO Elia Massa Manik, who barely served a single year at the helm of the state oil giant.
Ostensibly, the reason why Manik, along with four other directors , was sacked was due to a recent oil spill in Balikpapan, and for the shortage of subsidised gasoline across the archipelago. Also removed were Marketing Director - Muchamad Iskandar, Processing Director - Toharso, Asset Management Director - Dwi Wahyu Daryoto and Petrochemical and Processing Megaproject Director - Ardhy N. Mokobombang. Nicke Widyawati, Pertamina’s human resources director, will now be the acting chief executive, while Budi Santoso Syarif will serve as the new Processing Director, Basuki Trikora Putra as Corporate Marketing Director, Masud Hamid as Retail Marketing Director, Haryo Junianto as Asset Management Director, Heru Setiawan as Petrochemical and Processing Megaproject director and Gandhi Sriwidjojo as Infrastructure Director.
This continues from a dangerous trend that began last year, when CEO Dwi Soetjipto and Deputy CEO Ahmad Bambang were removed for ‘leadership issues’ (read more here http://bit.ly/2HQTNRE). Manik was appointed as the new CEO in 2017 in the aftermath, and now has departed.
This development comes as Indonesia’s self-sufficiency for energy worsens. One of the positions dismissed was the Petrochemical and Processing Megaproject Director. Since the 2000’s, Indonesia has been running a severe (and growing) deficit of fuel products, with refineries that desperately need upgrading. Much vaunted collaborations with Saudi Aramco, NIOC and Rosneft have been announced, but to date, none of the promised new mega-refineries have emerged. In a perfect world, Pertamina would be able to fund new refineries by themselves, but in Indonesia’s world of subsidised fuels, Pertamina took a US$2.4 billion loss last year in fuel retailing due to market distortions. Two weeks ago, the Indonesian government handed eight upstream blocks whose exploration rights were expiring to Pertamina as ‘compensation’ for continued fuel retail losses, which is a blow of confidence to upstream investors that were only recently enticed back to consider Indonesia after the country finally made positive changes to its Production Sharing model.
The problem here is evident. Indonesia cannot expect to maintain its costly fuels subsidy program by patching up holes and initiating continuous management restructuring programs. It always seems that the government takes one step forward (the upstream revenue sharing overhaul) then undoes all the good by taking two steps back (management instability is seen as a major sign of risk by investors). We wish good luck to the new CEO of Pertamina, who has many huge expectations to live up to, some of which look very challenging. Hopefully for Indonesia’s sake, his days are not numbered too.
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The UK has just designated the Persian Gulf as a level 3 risk for its ships – the highest level possible threat for British vessel traffic – as the confrontation between Iran with the US and its allies escalated. The strategically-important bit of water - and in particular the narrow Strait of Hormuz – is boiling over, and it seems as if full-blown military confrontation is inevitable.
The risk assessment comes as the British warship HMS Montrose had to escort the BP oil tanker British Heritage out of the Persian Gulf into the Indian Ocean from being blocked by Iranian vessels. The risk is particularly acute as Iran is spoiling for a fight after the Royal Marines seized the Iranian crude supertanker Grace-1 in Gibraltar on suspicions that it was violating sanctions by sending crude to war-torn Syria. Tensions over the Gibraltar seizure kept the British Heritage tanker in ‘safe’ Saudi Arabian waters for almost a week after making a U-turn from the Basrah oil terminal in Iraq on fears of Iranian reprisals, until the HMW Montrose came to its rescue. Iran’s Revolutionary Guard Corps have warned of further ‘reciprocation’ even as it denied the British Heritage incident ever occurred.
This is just the latest in a series of events around Iran that is rattling the oil world. Since the waivers on exports of Iranian crude by the USA expired in early May, there were four sabotage attacks on oil tankers in the region and two additional attacks in June, all near the major bunkering hub of Fujairah. Increased US military presence resulted in Iran downing an American drone, which almost led to a full-blown conflict were it not for a last-minute U-turn by President Donald Trump. Reports suggest that Iran’s Revolutionary Guard Corps have moved military equipment to its southern coast surrounding the narrow Strait of Hormuz, which is 39km at its narrowest. Up to a third of all seaborne petroleum trade passes through this chokepoint and while Iran would most likely overrun by US-led forces eventually if war breaks out, it could cause a major amount of damage in a little amount of time.
The risk has already driven up oil prices. While a risk premium has already been applied to current oil prices, some analysts are suggesting that further major spikes in crude oil prices could be incoming if Iran manages to close the Strait of Hormuz for an extended period of time. While international crude oil stocks will buffer any short-term impediment, if the Strait is closed for more than two weeks, crude oil prices could jump above US$100/b. If the Strait is closed for an extended period of time – and if the world has run down on its spare crude capacity – then prices could jump as high as US$325/b, according to a study conducted by the King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Centre in Riyadh. This hasn’t happened yet, but the impact is already being felt beyond crude prices: insurance premiums for ships sailing to and fro the Persian Gulf rose tenfold in June, while the insurance-advice group Joint War Committee has designated the waters as a ‘Listed Area’, the highest risk classification on the scale. VLCC rates for trips in the Persian Gulf have also slipped, with traders cagey about sending ships into the potential conflict zone.
This will continue, as there is no end-game in sight for the Iranian issue. With the USA vague on what its eventual goals are and Iran in an aggressive mood at perceived injustice, the situation could explode in war or stay on steady heat for a longer while. Either way, this will have a major impact on the global crude markets. The boiling point has not been reached yet, but the waters of the Strait of Hormuz are certainly simmering.
The Strait of Hormuz:
Headline crude prices for the week beginning 8 July 2019 – Brent: US$64/b; WTI: US$57/b
Headlines of the week
Utility-scale battery storage units (units of one megawatt (MW) or greater power capacity) are a newer electric power resource, and their use has been growing in recent years. Operating utility-scale battery storage power capacity has more than quadrupled from the end of 2014 (214 MW) through March 2019 (899 MW). Assuming currently planned additions are completed and no current operating capacity is retired, utility-scale battery storage power capacity could exceed 2,500 MW by 2023.
EIA's Annual Electric Generator Report (Form EIA-860) collects data on the status of existing utility-scale battery storage units in the United States, along with proposed utility-scale battery storage projects scheduled for initial commercial operation within the next five years. The monthly version of this survey, the Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (Form EIA-860M), collects the updated status of any projects scheduled to come online within the next 12 months.
Growth in utility-scale battery installations is the result of supportive state-level energy storage policies and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission’s Order 841 that directs power system operators to allow utility-scale battery systems to engage in their wholesale energy, capacity, and ancillary services markets. In addition, pairing utility-scale battery storage with intermittent renewable resources, such as wind and solar, has become increasingly competitive compared with traditional generation options.
The two largest operating utility-scale battery storage sites in the United States as of March 2019 provide 40 MW of power capacity each: the Golden Valley Electric Association’s battery energy storage system in Alaska and the Vista Energy storage system in California. In the United States, 16 operating battery storage sites have an installed power capacity of 20 MW or greater. Of the 899 MW of installed operating battery storage reported by states as of March 2019, California, Illinois, and Texas account for a little less than half of that storage capacity.
In the first quarter of 2019, 60 MW of utility-scale battery storage power capacity came online, and an additional 108 MW of installed capacity will likely become operational by the end of the year. Of these planned 2019 installations, the largest is the Top Gun Energy Storage facility in California with 30 MW of installed capacity.
As of March 2019, the total utility-scale battery storage power capacity planned to come online through 2023 is 1,623 MW. If these planned facilities come online as scheduled, total U.S. utility-scale battery storage power capacity would nearly triple by the end of 2023. Additional capacity beyond what has already been reported may also be added as future operational dates approach.
Of all planned battery storage projects reported on Form EIA-860M, the largest two sites account for 725 MW and are planned to start commercial operation in 2021. The largest of these planned sites is the Manatee Solar Energy Center in Parrish, Florida. With a capacity of 409 MW, this project will be the largest solar-powered battery system in the world and will store energy from a nearby Florida Power and Light solar plant in Manatee County.
The second-largest planned utility-scale battery storage facility is the Helix Ravenswood facility located in Queens, New York. The site is planned to be developed in three stages and will have a total capacity of 316 MW.