Almost everyone seems to agree that US$80/b – at least in this current environment – is not conducive for the oil business. While oil producing countries are reaping benefits right now, they are also worried that prices sustaining at this level will cause demand destruction in key markets like China and India, which have underpinned global oil growth over the last year.
They are also, correctly, worried that the longer oil stays at this level, the greater the reaction by US shale producers will be, causing another crash further down the line. OPEC is worried that this derails their carefully calculated alliance over the past 18 months that has seen an unprecedented level of cooperation and that implosions in Venezuela and sanctions against Iran will exacerbate the situation.
And most of all, American President Donald Trump, who took to Twitter once again recently to accuse OPEC of colluding to keep prices high – as the Republicans worry that high pump prices for gasoline over summer will further erode political support in the upcoming midterm elections.
So as OPEC and the NOPEC alliance meet once again in Vienna on Friday (June 22) for their bi-annual meeting, the mood of the meeting has swung from the need to support oil prices to the need to manage oil prices. On paper, OPEC’s heavyweight fighter – Saudi Arabia – is pushing for higher production, supported by its allies Kuwait, the UAE and Algeria. Several other big producers including Iran, Iraq and Venezuela, however, don’t seem to agree and have threatened to veto any proposal for a production increase, with Iran stating that ‘we do not need to appease Trump and the market is well-supplied’. Russia, the leading producer in the NOPEC alliance is also pushing for higher production, and the countries in NOPEC look liable to be whipped into line. But OPEC decisions rely on consensus and if the countries cannot come to one, unilateral actions could trigger a return to the destructive free-for-all attitude within OPEC where producers compete for market share and depress prices as a result. After enduring three years of low prices, no one in the industry wants a return to that.
At the opening match of the World Cup 2018 in Moscow, Vladimir Putin and Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman were spotted getting chummy, despite Russia thrashing Saudi Arabia 5-0. This has fuelled speculation that the two producers could be forging an alliance separate to OPEC, possibly jeopardising coordination within the oil cartel. Despite Iran and Iraq being very vocal about not agreeing to any supply increase, Russia has suggested that OPEC and NOPEC could begin gradually increasing oil production starting from July 1. That itself is not controversial – the November 2017 meeting predicted this, stating then that the world market was rebalancing more quickly than expected and a review of the supply freeze was required in June 2018. That requires cooperation, but as it stands now OPEC looks to be divided into two cooperatives – Russia, Saudi Arabia and their allies on one side and Iraq, Iran and Venezuela on the other.
The butting of these heads will define the upcoming meeting and one can only hope that they will come to an agreement, given that previous disagreements have proved damaging.
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This winter, natural gas prices have been at their lowest levels in decades. On Monday, February 10, the near-month natural gas futures price at the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) closed at $1.77 per million British thermal units (MMBtu). This price was the lowest February closing price for the near-month contract since at least 2001, in real terms, and the lowest near-month futures price in any month since March 8, 2016, according to Bloomberg, L.P. and FRED data.
In addition, according to Natural Gas Intelligence data, the daily spot price at the Henry Hub national benchmark was $1.81/MMBtu on February 10, 2020, the lowest price in real terms since March 9, 2016. Henry Hub spot prices have ranged between $1.81/MMBtu and $2.84/MMBtu this winter heating season (since November 1, 2019), generally because relatively warm winter weather has reduced demand for natural gas for heating. Natural gas production growth has outpaced demand growth, reducing the need to withdraw natural gas from underground storage.
Dry natural gas production in January 2020 averaged about 95.0 billion cubic feet per day (Bcf/d), according to IHS Markit data. IHS Markit also estimates that in January 2020 the United States saw the third-highest monthly U.S. natural gas production on record, down slightly from the previous two months.
IHS Markit estimates that U.S. natural gas consumption by residential, commercial, industrial, and electric power sectors averaged 96 Bcf/d for January, which was about 4.4 Bcf/d less than the average for January 2019, largely because of decreases in residential and commercial consumption as a result of warmer temperatures.
However, IHS Markit estimates that overall consumption of natural gas (including feed gas to liquefied natural gas (LNG) export facilities, pipeline fuel losses, and net exports by pipeline to Mexico) averaged about 117.5 Bcf/d in January 2020, an increase of about 0.2 Bcf/d from last year. This overall increase is largely a result of an almost doubling of LNG feed gas to about 8.5 Bcf/d.
Because supply growth has outpaced demand growth, less natural gas has been withdrawn from storage withdrawals this winter. Despite starting the 2019–20 heating season with the third-lowest level of natural gas inventory since 2009, by January 17, 2020, working natural gas inventories reached relatively high levels for mid-winter. The U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) data on natural gas inventories for the Lower 48 states as of February 7, 2020, reflect a 215 Bcf surplus to the five-year average. In EIA’s latest short-term forecast, more natural gas remains in storage levels than the previous five-year average through the remainder of the winter.
According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), January 2020 was the fifth-warmest in its 126-year climate record. Heating degree days (HDDs), a temperature-based metric for heating demand, have been relatively low this winter, which is consistent with a warmer winter. During some weeks in late December and early January, the United States saw 25% to 30% fewer HDDs than the 30-year average. This winter, through February 8, residential natural gas customers in the United States have seen 11% fewer HDDs than the 30-year average.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, based on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Climate Prediction Center data
Headline crude prices for the week beginning 10 February 2020 – Brent: US$53/b; WTI: US$49/b
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