22 October to 25 November on line course will be held Los Almacenamientos Subterraneos de Gas (Underground Gas Storage).
This course aims to give a global view of the world of Oil & Gas, focusing on underground storage, a subject rarely addressed at times, but present in Spain and increasingly strategic due to the change of global energy priorities.
This course will deal with basic concepts of petroleum geology, geophysics, the Petroleum system, monitoring methods, CO2 management, drilling, etc.
The course is divided into six topics:
Topic 1 gives general overview on underground gas storages, types, natural gas properties, market, and future expectations.
Topic 2 describes project phases for the realization of the underground gas storage, main parameters and properties of a reservoir, reservoir tests, static and dynamic models with example in PETREL.
Topic 3 describes functions and design of a well, types of wells and facilities and all activities from preparation of the land, through the process of drilling and description of drilling equipment and drilling fluids.
Topic 4 describes surface installations such as industrial process and facilities, complementary infrastructures (LNG plants, gas pipeline network, etc) and offshore facilities.
Topic 5 - Monitoring of the gas bubble and seismic control. Definitions and objectives of monitoring,
geophysical methods (seismic and non seismic), establishments of monitoring networks and control.
Topic 6 Storage of CO2: Technology and development, capture, transport, storage, generalities and similarities with natural gas, feasibility and current experiences.
In these short notes it was impossible to present the whole scope of prepared material, so anyone who can, I recommend to follow the course.
In spite that this lecture is related to Spain, I believe it will be interesting for wider audience. For example, Gas consumption in Croatia has increasing tendency and considering continuous drop of domestic production, storage capacities are important for stabile gas supply in the future. Planned LNG terminal in Omisalj (Island Krk) can play significant role in diversification of energy import not only in Croatia, but for wider region as well.
Another aspect opened by this course is CO2 management. Anyone who worked in environmental protection, especially regarding air quality, and climate change knows that CO2 isn’t considered as a pollutant, but as the economic parameter, wary significant in business after introduction of Emission Trading System (ETS). Another economic aspect is that the climate change impacts are considered in practically every serious project. So in spite that CO2 was chosen as closure, probably it will open some of following courses.
At the end, I would like to thank my Mentee Alberto Sanchez Miravalles and other colleagues for giving me a chance to participate in this nice project.
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Headline crude prices for the week beginning 5 November 2018 – Brent: US$72/b; WTI: US$62/b
Headlines of the week
It is a well-known fact that the oil and gas industry has a lot to offer in terms of opportunities - paycheck, lifestyle, and work-life balance. However, like everything else in life, it has a flip side as well. If you are planning to make a career in oil and gas industry, it is important to know the cons as well. Here is a list of risks associated with working in oil and gas industry that you must know to make an informed decision.
Highly competitive: survival of the fittest
Oil and gas industry is highly competitive and dynamic in nature. The job requires high level of expertise and productivity. With digitization and automation of the industry, the work functions are changing rapidly. The employees who cannot cope up and upskill with changing time and need will be automatically pushed out of the system. The foremost challenge in oil and gas industry is to stay relevant and keep upskilling.
Long work hours
Some job functions in oil industry like offshore rig workers have to work in 12-hours shift, seven days a week and for seven to 28 days in one stretch. Sometimes, overtime is also expected due to emergency or to manage the project deadlines. However, the oil companies do give equal amount of resting period to the rig workers to compensate for the long working hours. Even then, the continuous long hours is strenuous for the workforce.
The accident-prone work environment
Although rigorous safety trainings are provided to the workforce along with numerous safety measures and laws in place; accidents do occur. Sometimes, these accidents can be life-threatening. Here is quick overview of the possible accidents that you might encounter:
Risk of confined space and fall- The line workers in oil and gas industry sometimes work in confined spaces like mud pits, reserve pits, storage tanks, sand storage, and other excavated areas, where they are exposed to potential risk of ignition of inflammable vapors, exposure to harmful chemicals, and asphyxiation. Additionally, these kinds of workplaces involve risk of falls, slips and trips too which can cause severe injuries and can even turn fatal. Though the companies are extremely careful and take all safety precautions, but the risk cannot be ruled out.
Additionally, frequent exposure to chemicals used in refineries and drilling operations can impact long-term health. To offset these dangers, oil and gas companies provide comprehensive training to employees to ensure safety protocols and site-specific features.
Working in remote location
The oil and gas professionals have to work on remote location for exploration, offshore duties, pumping stations, gas plants and more. The workers in remote location often feel isolated and they are on their own to cope up with numerous work-related accidents and health hazards.
Working in oil and gas industry is extremely rewarding in terms of career growth, travelling opportunities and compensation. However, the above points must also be considered before stepping into this industry. It is important to mention here that majority of oil and gas companies are aware of the risks associated and thus have sound safety measures in place to avoid any contingency. Moreover, the government and regulatory bodies also impose strict regulations for safety and security of the workforce. Therefore, in many cases, the risk associated is considerably reduced. So, before you accept any offer from any oil and gas companies, you must carefully verify the safety measures and policies of the company. Once, you are assured, your career in oil and gas will be highly rewarding.
If you are looking for relevant opportunities, check out NrgEdge.com to kickstart your career in oil and gas industry.
Due to shortage or limited availability of oil and gas, companies today are evaluating how they can harness alternative energy sources. The alternate fuel market is targeting hydro and thermal power plants, however solar and wind are catching up fast as preferred energy sources. There are still reservations about nuclear energy considering the risk of nuclear waste or manufacturing of nuclear weapons. However, strategies are shaping up to minimize the risk and maximize the profitability potential. Until then, sources such as solar and wind are being focused upon more and new sources like biofuels are explored extensively.
How will the shift towards alternate energy impact traditional oil and gas market?
There have been huge investments in the different alternate energy avenues by most of the big oil majors. These heavy investments on various alternate technologies by big oil majors and other oil companies around the world indicates a positive outlook towards the scope of clean fuel energy. However, the feasibility of its application is still questionable. Whether or not it will be able to meet the energy needs of the world while upholding its profitability is a question that is bothering the world.
Let us understand what the shift means for the companies in the energy sector.
Rate of employment
Among all renewable energy sources that have been studied, bio energy has been most influential. The fuel is created and transported within a confined space. The work is extremely labor-intensive and hence scope of employment increases. Hydropower and wind power will generate job opportunities during construction and project development phase. However, once the unit is commissioned only few operational staff will be required to perform the operational work.
Traditional energy is more expensive than renewable energy. If renewable energy can be produced on large scale, it can eliminate the gas shortage. Even other forms of renewable energy are much cheaper in comparison to traditional oil and gas sector. The cost benefits will be transferred to the consumers and they’ll be able save considerable amount on utility bills.
Improved Brand Image
It makes good business sense to make a move from traditional energy resources to renewable ones. The environmentalists have been arguing about the negative impacts of using and overusing the non-renewable source of energy. The shift towards alternate energy will boost the brand image of the traditional oil and gas company.
Higher market penetration and Mass access to energy
Due to dependence on fossil fuels which are non-renewable sources and expensive, a significant number of people in the world have no access to power. A chunk of people in Asian and Sub-Saharan Africa area are still using traditional biomass for cooking. However, if the alternate energy can completely replace the traditional oil and gas then it will have a deeper penetration into the market and majority of people will have access to it.
Ethical Investment Avenue
Renewable sector is considered as an attractive and ethical investment avenue for the ones who wish to invest outside traditional channels and are futuristic in outlook. The rising investment on alternate energy is impacting the job creation and community cohesion, which is again a positive move.
How the alternate energy is transitioning the oil and gas?
Big oil companies and other oil companies are making practical, well-researched, and steady approach towards renewable energy spanning from solar panels to genetically engineered algae. However, there are still many companies which are in research/experimentation phase and do have a concrete plan in place.
The pathway to clean fuel technology that operates with efficiency and profitability is getting paved. More than 100 countries in developing as well as developed nations have set a clean fuel target and are working towards it. The European Union has set a goal to meet its 20% energy requirements via renewable sources by 2020.
The world has acknowledged climate change and are working together to shift from carbon-intensive to carbon-neutral environment which might pave the way for generations to come.