Brent crude is once again flirting with the US$80/b level. By the time October begins, it is likely that Brent prices will be comfortably over the mark, pulling WTI prices up towards the same level. The last time crude prices surged (and sustained) above this level, US$80/b was identified as the level where demand destruction began, as countries and companies scaled back on oil usage. Since the price crash in 2015, demand has managed to pick up tremendously, in no small part due to cheap prices. Where do prices go from here? Can they return to the US$100/b level? That would be cheery news for oil firms, who are finally emerging from a tough slump, but it could also return us to the excesses of the previous cycle, repeating the same problems.
The direction for oil prices – at least for the foreseeable futures – is definitely up. The main thrust for this is Iran. Or rather, renewed American sanctions on Iran. Though the Trump administration’s aim to reduce Iranian crude exports to zero is probably a pipe dream – in no small part due to pushback from India and China – the sanctions will still manage to remove at least 1 million b/d from the market. At a time when Venezuela production is in a downward spiral and disruption continually threatens OPEC’s North African members, this supply risk is constantly pushing prices levels up. OPEC has vowed to turn on the spigots in association with its NOPEC partners, but not to a level that can offset all the losses, to appease members such as Iran and Iraq. This is unlikely to be revised drastically at the upcoming OPEC meeting in December. The US is not happy about the situation – witness President Trump’s flailing tweets – and the American Congress is considering an anti-cartel bill that could open OPEC to lawsuits, all to rectify a situation that it itself created.
Because of this, major oil trading houses and banks are predicting prices to rise even further. Goldman Sachs, which once famously predicted prices could spike to US$200/b during the 2008 boom, is curiously cautious in maintaining its prediction at a floor of US$80/b, as is Citibank. JP Morgan, however, expects Brent to hit US$85/b as early as November, on a path to rise to US$90/b. Trading houses are more bullish. Mercuria and Trafigura are both predicting US$100/b prices by early 2019 – citing the lack of spare capacity in the market to replace lost volumes. Even the shale rush in the US that has made America the world’s largest crude producer will not be enough to replace lost Iranian volumes in the short- and medium-term. Most analysts expect the Iranian losses to be at least 1 mmb/d, with some analysts predicting that Iranian exports would fall to just 700,000 b/d from 2.1 mmb/d last year, shipped mostly to China and to India, with land routes used to circumvent shipping and insurance sanctions.
At prices like this, one would expect oil producers to rush in to fill the gap. But pipeline infrastructure limitations in the Permian are hampering distribution to Gulf Coast export hubs, while promising upstream production in Guyana, Mexico and Australia are still far, far off from commercialisation. Meanwhile, vast new LNG facilities has come onstream, together with major natural gas finds, accelerating oil’s displacement by gas in key sectors such as power and petrochemicals. Meanwhile, oil firms expect the bonanza to continue; service firms, particularly deepwater-focused ones, are seeing enthusiastic signs, as firms push towards riskier projects made economical only at high oil prices. This has happened before, as most would remember, but the oil industry has a short memory. Where will crude prices go from here? Nobody can agree on the exact magnitude, but everyone agrees that the direction is up.
Factors influencing the rise to US$100/b oil:
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The global bioethanol market is estimated at USD 53.19 Billion in 2017 and is projected to reach USD 68.95 Billion by 2022, at a CAGR of 5.3% from 2017 to 2022. The market is driven by the increased demand for bioethanol from various end-use industry segments, such as transportation, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, alcoholic beverages, and others. The transportation end-use industry segment led the global bioethanol market, in terms of volume, in 2016.
Download PDF Brochure @ https://www.marketsandmarkets.com/pdfdownloadNew.asp?id=131222570Major Growth Drivers:
Starch-based feedstock is estimated to be the largest feedstock type in the global bioethanol market.
The starch-based segment is estimated to be the largest feedstock segment of the global bioethanol market. This feedstock type uses corn, barley, wheat, and other starch raw materials as feedstocks to produce bioethanol. Corn has the highest percentage of starch, about 70-72%. The growth in this segment is attributed to the rising demand from Asia Pacific and South America and the wide variety of feedstocks that can be used to produce starch-based bioethanol. The feedstocks used are available in almost all over the world.
Alcoholic beverages segment is estimated to be the fastest growing end-use industry segment of the global bioethanol market.
Among end-use industries, the alcoholic beverages segment is estimated to be the fastest growing end-use segment of the global bioethanol market. The growth of this segment is attributed to the increasing purchasing power in developing countries and the growing acceptance of drinking alcoholic beverages in some cultures.
North America contributes as the largest market of bioethanol
In 2016, North America accounted for largest share of the bioethanol market. Currently, the US is the largest market for bioethanol in North America, and is expected to continue to be the largest market till 2022. In the US, the demand for bioethanol is expected to increase due to the increasing government and environment regulations in the country. Regulations such as the Federal Reformulated Gasoline (RFG) and E15 regulations contribute to the growing use of bioethanol in fuels. The other driving factor for the bioethanol market is the low price of corn, which is a prime feedstock used in the production of bioethanol in the country. Many bioethanol manufacturers are based in this region.
Key companies profiled in the global bioethanol market research report include Archer Daniels Midland Company (US), POET LLC (US), Green Plains (US), Valero Energy Corporation (US), Flint Hills Resource (US), Abengoa Bioenergy SA (Spain), Royal Dutch Shell plc (Netherlands), Pacific Ethanol, Inc. (US), Petrobras (Brazil), and The Andersons (US).
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Electricity, coal, renewables, and emissions
Many of Indonesia’s oil and gas fields, both on and offshore, are coming to the end of their commercially viable operational lifespan. More than 60% of Indonesia’s oil and more than 30% of gas production comes from late-life-cycle resources spread across the world's largest island country. Despite investment and use of enhanced oil field recovery measures, as well as increasing automation to extend the economic lifespan of these assets, decommissioning will soon become necessary.
However Indonesia, like many countries new to the prospect of decommissioning energy infrastructure, face many key technological, fiscal, environmental, regulatory and industrial capacity issues, which need to be addressed by both government and industry decision makers.
This report, commissioned by the consulting and advisory arm of London and Aberdeen based Precision Media & Communications, aims to take a look at many of the issues Indonesia and other South East Asian oil producing nations are likely to face with the prospect of decommissioning the region's oil and gas aging energy infrastructure both onshore and offshore... To find out more Click here