The Oil and Gas industry is going through ‘the Great Crew Change’ which means the dominant experienced generation will pass on the baton to the millennials over the next few years. Premiums are placed on a newer generation to assume increasing job responsibilities without compromising on the safety and quality. However, the traditional approach of classroom sessions and on-the-job training will not be enough to deliver in-sync to the expectation. The training must be amplified with advanced technologies like Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) that enhances the workforce's knowledge and confidence.
Visualization is one of the greatest abilities of humankind, and with the advancement of computing technology, this concept has been translated as Augmented and Virtual Reality. In the high-risk setup like construction, military, aviation or energy, the visualization techniques can combat the future risks and can even save lives.
The oil and gas industry has introduced AR/VR Immersive Training Systems, which is a 3D engineering tool that connects control room operators, maintenance, and field personnel in a single realistic simulated learning environment. The system also allows to capture and retain operational knowledge and technical expertise during the replacement of the experienced operators with the new workforce. It ensures safety and unhindered plant operation and performance.
Augmented Reality (AR) in the oil and gas sector provides a visual view of the system along with the digital information. It provides graphics, real-time data, and feedback. Field engineers can also perform maintenance task by using AR informative graphics, resulting in the better assessment of the issues and reduced downtimes. It can also be used in the monitoring of the critical equipment for preventive and corrective maintenance in rigs, exploration and production units. It is a great tool for on-the-job training and keeping your workforce updated with latest learnings.
Virtual reality (VR) simulation mimics the real-world scenario. The user can interact with the elements and can even perform tasks virtually through sensory experience. This is one of the best learning tools for the upcoming generation. It enables them to learn about the oil reservoir, rigs, and other equipment in a life-like setting, without being physically present in the hazardous environment. They can also learn about the possible hiccups and the ways to combat them. By using 3D immersive technology, one can zoom in and zoom out the viewing model and can compare the expected system with the actual to learn more about the deviation. Even the real-life mock-ups can be created to train the workforce better.
Benefits of training
· Fast commissioning and start-up time
With the real-world plant training of the operators, supervisors, managers, field engineers, and maintenance staff the company can minimize the project risk considerably and prevent delays due to plant commissioning and start-up.
· Save cost on Infrastructure
The cost of training your personnel in real setup means a huge expenditure for the company in providing the facility, training staff, and equipment. However, with simulations, the personnel can easily learn to operate, manage and maintain the equipment without any expenses on infrastructure. The technology can also assist in case-study of oil drilling platforms, processing plants, rigs, refineries, which comprises of the most complex machinery and process.
· Fast and efficient training
The real-time training requires long duration due to a mix of the classroom session, on-the-job training, plant or site visit. However, VR offers the same level of training without much movement and expenditure in considerably less time. Thus the simulated learning system makes the training process highly reliable, sustainable, efficient, effective, and pocket-friendly.
· Compliance with safety parameters
3D models simulate the real work conditions and enhance the understanding level of the workers and equip them to deal with any risks or unsafe situations and ensure adherence to the safety compliances.
· Improve first-time fix rates
The upstream segment is usually located in the remote or offshore location which means the cost of installation and maintenance is high due to accessibility issues. The technicians can be trained about the facilities in advance before reaching to perform periodic maintenance and first-time fixes.
· Conduct primary diagnosis
AR/VR platform aided with the integration from the sensor's operating system can provide historical data about the facilities and help to conduct training that enables the technician to make an informed decision. The engineer learns to conduct a first-level diagnostic and ascertain the extent of the problem before reaching the site.
The future of Augmented and Virtual reality is moving beyond the ‘virtual view’ to a more ‘data-oriented virtual view’. The idea is to obtain relevant historical and real-time data via enterprise system or IoT- based system to deal with any system error or failure. When the personnel is trained using the simulation and 3D models they are better equipped to deal with real-time situations and can help in creating innovative solutions at a fraction of cost.
The real time training requires long duration due to a mix of classroom session, on-the-job training, plant or site visit. However, VR offers the same level of training without much movement and expenditure in considerably less time. Thus the simulated learning system makes the training process highly reliable, sustainable, efficient, effective, and pocket-friendly.
3D models simulate the real work conditions and enhances the understanding level of the workers and equips them to deal with any risks or unsafe situations and ensures adherence to the safety compliances.
The upstream segment is usually located in the remote or offshore location which means the cost of installation and maintenance is high due to accessibility issues.The technicians can be trained about the facilities in advance before reaching to perform periodic maintenance and first-time fixes.
AR/VR platform aided with the integration from operational system can provide historical data of the facilties and help to conduct training that enable the technician to make informed decision. The engineer learns to conduct a first-level diagnostic and ascertain the extent of problem before reaching the site.
The future of Augmented and Virtual reality is moving beyond the ‘virtual view’ to a more ‘data-oriented virtual view’. The idea is to obtain relevant historical and real-time data via enterprise system or IoT- based system to deal with any system error or failure. When the personnel are trained using the simulation and 3D models they are better equipped to deal with real-time situations and can help in creating innovative solutions at a fraction of cost.
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In 2020, renewable energy sources (including wind, hydroelectric, solar, biomass, and geothermal energy) generated a record 834 billion kilowatthours (kWh) of electricity, or about 21% of all the electricity generated in the United States. Only natural gas (1,617 billion kWh) produced more electricity than renewables in the United States in 2020. Renewables surpassed both nuclear (790 billion kWh) and coal (774 billion kWh) for the first time on record. This outcome in 2020 was due mostly to significantly less coal use in U.S. electricity generation and steadily increased use of wind and solar.
In 2020, U.S. electricity generation from coal in all sectors declined 20% from 2019, while renewables, including small-scale solar, increased 9%. Wind, currently the most prevalent source of renewable electricity in the United States, grew 14% in 2020 from 2019. Utility-scale solar generation (from projects greater than 1 megawatt) increased 26%, and small-scale solar, such as grid-connected rooftop solar panels, increased 19%.
Coal-fired electricity generation in the United States peaked at 2,016 billion kWh in 2007 and much of that capacity has been replaced by or converted to natural gas-fired generation since then. Coal was the largest source of electricity in the United States until 2016, and 2020 was the first year that more electricity was generated by renewables and by nuclear power than by coal (according to our data series that dates back to 1949). Nuclear electric power declined 2% from 2019 to 2020 because several nuclear power plants retired and other nuclear plants experienced slightly more maintenance-related outages.
We expect coal-fired electricity generation to increase in the United States during 2021 as natural gas prices continue to rise and as coal becomes more economically competitive. Based on forecasts in our Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO), we expect coal-fired electricity generation in all sectors in 2021 to increase 18% from 2020 levels before falling 2% in 2022. We expect U.S. renewable generation across all sectors to increase 7% in 2021 and 10% in 2022. As a result, we forecast coal will be the second-most prevalent electricity source in 2021, and renewables will be the second-most prevalent source in 2022. We expect nuclear electric power to decline 2% in 2021 and 3% in 2022 as operators retire several generators.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review and Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO)
Note: This graph shows electricity net generation in all sectors (electric power, industrial, commercial, and residential) and includes both utility-scale and small-scale (customer-sited, less than 1 megawatt) solar.
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The tizzy that OPEC+ threw the world into in early July has been settled, with a confirmed pathway forward to restore production for the rest of 2021 and an extension of the deal further into 2022. The lone holdout from the early July meetings – the UAE – appears to have been satisfied with the concessions offered, paving the way for the crude oil producer group to begin increasing its crude oil production in monthly increments from August onwards. However, this deal comes at another difficult time; where the market had been fretting about a shortage of oil a month ago due to resurgent demand, a new blast of Covid-19 infections driven by the delta variant threatens to upend the equation once again. And so Brent crude futures settled below US$70/b for the first time since late May even as the argument at OPEC+ appeared to be settled.
How the argument settled? Well, on the surface, Riyadh and Moscow capitulated to Abu Dhabi’s demands that its baseline quota be adjusted in order to extend the deal. But since that demand would result in all other members asking for a similar adjustment, Saudi Arabia and Russia worked in a rise for all, and in the process, awarded themselves the largest increases.
The net result of this won’t be that apparent in the short- and mid-term. The original proposal at the early July meetings, backed by OPEC+’s technical committee was to raise crude production collectively by 400,000 b/d per month from August through December. The resulting 2 mmb/d increase in crude oil, it was predicted, would still lag behind expected gains in consumption, but would be sufficient to keep prices steady around the US$70/b range, especially when factoring in production increases from non-OPEC+ countries. The longer term view was that the supply deal needed to be extended from its initial expiration in April 2022, since global recovery was still ‘fragile’ and the bloc needed to exercise some control over supply to prevent ‘wild market fluctuations’. All members agreed to this, but the UAE had a caveat – that the extension must be accompanied by a review of its ‘unfair’ baseline quota.
The fix to this issue that was engineered by OPEC+’s twin giants Saudi Arabia and Russia was to raise quotas for all members from May 2022 through to the new expiration date for the supply deal in September 2022. So the UAE will see its baseline quota, the number by which its output compliance is calculated, rise by 330,000 b/d to 3.5 mmb/d. That’s a 10% increase, which will assuage Abu Dhabi’s itchiness to put the expensive crude output infrastructure it has invested billions in since 2016 to good use. But while the UAE’s hike was greater than some others, Saudi Arabia and Russia took the opportunity to award themselves (at least in terms of absolute numbers) by raising their own quotas by 500,000 b/d to 11.5 mmb/d each.
On the surface, that seems academic. Saudi Arabia has only pumped that much oil on a handful of occasions, while Russia’s true capacity is pegged at some 10.4 mmb/d. But the additional generous headroom offered by these larger numbers means that Riyadh and Moscow will have more leeway to react to market fluctuations in 2022, which at this point remains murky. Because while there is consensus that more crude oil will be needed in 2022, there is no consensus on what that number should be. The US EIA is predicting that OPEC+ should be pumping an additional 4 million barrels collectively from June 2021 levels in order to meet demand in the first half of 2022. However, OPEC itself is looking at a figure of some 3 mmb/d, forecasting a period of relative weakness that could possibly require a brief tightening of quotas if the new delta-driven Covid surge erupts into another series of crippling lockdowns. The IEA forecast is aligned with OPEC’s, with an even more cautious bent.
But at some point with the supply pathway from August to December set in stone, although OPEC+ has been careful to say that it may continue to make adjustments to this as the market develops, the issues of headline quota numbers fades away, while compliance rises to prominence. Because the success of the OPEC+ deal was not just based on its huge scale, but also the willingness of its 23 members to comply to their quotas. And that compliance, which has been the source of major frustrations in the past, has been surprisingly high throughout the pandemic. Even in May 2021, the average OPEC+ compliance was 85%. Only a handful of countries – Malaysia, Bahrain, Mexico and Equatorial Guinea – were estimated to have exceeded their quotas, and even then not by much. But compliance is easier to achieve in an environment where demand is weak. You can’t pump what you can’t sell after all. But as crude balances rapidly shift from glut to gluttony, the imperative to maintain compliance dissipates.
For now, OPEC+ has managed to placate the market with its ability to corral its members together to set some certainty for the immediate future of crude. Brent crude prices have now been restored above US$70/b, with WTI also climbing. The spat between Saudi Arabia and the UAE may have surprised and shocked market observers, but there is still unity in the club. However, that unity is set to be tested. By the end of 2021, the focus of the OPEC+ supply deal will have shifted from theoretical quotas to actual compliance. Abu Dhabi has managed to lift the tide for all OPEC+ members, offering them more room to manoeuvre in a recovering market, but discipline will not be uniform. And that’s when the fireworks will really begin.
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