At some point in 2019, crude production in Venezuela will dip below the 1 mmb/d level. It might already have occurred; estimated output was 1.15 mmb/d in November and the country’s downward trajectory for 2018 would put December numbers at about 1.06 mmb/d. Financial sanctions imposed on the country by the US, coupled with years of fiscal mismanagement have triggered an economic and humanitarian meltdown, where inflation has at times hit 1,400,000% and forced an abandonment of the ‘old’ bolivar for a ‘new bolivar’. PDVSA – once an oil industry crown jewel – has been hammered, from its cargoes being seized by ConocoPhillips for debts owed to the loss of the Curacao refinery and its prized Citgo refineries in the US.
The year 2019 will not see a repair of this chronic issue. Crude production in Venezuela will continue to slide. Once Latin America’s largest oil exporter – with peak production of 3.3 mmb/d and exports of 2.3 mmb/d in 1999 – it has now been eclipsed by Brazil and eventually tiny Guyana, where ExxonMobil has made massive discoveries. Even more pain is on the way, as the Trump administration prepares new sanctions as Nicolas Maduro begins his second term after a widely-derided election. But what is pain for Venezuela is gain for OPEC; the slack that its declining volumes provides makes it easier to maintain aggregate supply levels aimed at shoring up global oil prices.
It isn’t that Venezuela doesn’t want to increase – or at least maintain its production levels. It is that PDVSA isn’t capable of doing so alone, and has lost many deep-pocketed international ‘friends’ that were once instrumental to its success. The nationalisation of the oil industry in 2007 alienated supermajors like Chevron, Total and BP, and led to ConocoPhillips and ExxonMobil suing the Venezuelan government. Arbitration in 2014 saw that amount reduced, but even that has not been paid; ConocoPhillips took the extraordinary step of seizing PDVSA cargoes at sea and its Caribbean assets in lieu of the US$2 billion arbitration award. Burnt by the legacies of Hugo Chavez and now Nicolas Maduro, these majors won’t be coming back – forcing Venezuela to turn to second-tier companies and foreign aid to extract more volumes. Last week, Venezuela signed an agreement with the newly-formed US-based Erepla Services to boost production at the Tia Juana, Rosa Mediano and Ayacucho 5 fields. In return, Erepla will receive half the oil produced – generous terms that still weren’t enough to entice service giants like Schlumberger and Halliburton.
Venezuela is also tapping into Russian, Chinese and Indian aid to boost output, essentially selling off key assets for necessary cash and expertise. This could be a temporary band-aid, but nothing more. Most of Venezuela’s oil reserves come from the extra-heavy reserves in the Orinoco Belt, where an estimated 1.2 trillion barrels lies. Extracting this will be extremely expensive and possibly commercially uneconomical – given the refining industry’s move away from heavy grades to middle distillates. There are also very few refineries in the world that can process such heavy crude, and Venezuela is in no position to make additional demands from them. In a world where PDVSA has fewer and fewer friends, recovery will be extremely tough and extremely far-off.
Infographic: Venezuelan crude production:
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“Communication is an art. Period”
It is true when we say that connecting with people is not everyone’s cup of tea. The first step is listening and then responding accordingly.
When it comes to chatting services, it becomes even more crucial to be clear and transparent.
It falls under the category of Managed Chat Services. People are trained to know inside out about a particular service/product.
But what are the exact requirements and features for anyone to become a chat service agent? Find about them below:
This form of communication requires the agent to understand the need of the user properly and respond in a way that the easiest for them to understand. This differs from person to person easily.
It has been found that using managed services helps in acquiring customers and converting leads easily. People get quick quality responses which creates a good image of the seller in their minds.
Be quick in responding. This show how alert and active the employees are. If the response takes a long amount of time, then it can leave the customer frustrated. This can end up creating a negative impact on the customer.
There can be times when a shopper can get distracted or can get busy exploring other options/varieties online. This can look like the customer has helped but the reality is far away from it. Give the user a sufficient amount of time before declaring a chat dead or unresponsive.
A Propane Bullet Tank, also known as LPG Above Ground Tanks, is used for storing liquid natural gas. The tanks have components that best fit your company's needs and are available in various sizes.
The size of a propane bullet tank can be anything from 6,000 and 30,000 gallons, with an 18,000 tank generally the most popular. Tank fill levels should not exceed 70–80% for liquid natural gas to expand inside the vessel.
For holding trucks to reach the site and collect liquids, a tank's average pressure should be approximately 250 psi. This will keep liquid natural gas contained and under low pressure.What & Where Is Propane Bullet Tank Used?
You're undoubtedly wondering, "Where should I utilize or keep them?" A propane bullet tank is linked to the cold separator drain on a Joule Thomson System (JTS) or mechanical refrigeration devices for the collection and short-term storage of the recovered natural gas liquids.
These tanks are also utilized in refineries and other end-use facilities for the bulk storage of goods that can be sold, such as propane or butane.
LPG is kept in propane bullet tanks because the liquid gas needs to be kept under intense pressure to remain fluid. Bullet tanks effectively do this because of their evenly dispersed, consistent pressure. Since there are no edges, there is also no possibility of a variable pressure region.
What Can a Propane Bullet Tank Do?
A channel called a bulkhead stanchion prevents unintentional vehicle pull-away.
The most important valve on any tank is the pressure relief valve. It is intended to release too much pressure.
The level gauge continuously measures the levels of liquid natural gas.
Reduces fluid loss during emergencies thanks to the emergency shutoff valve.
If trucking drives away while the hoses are still attached and move, the bulkhead, flexible hose, and hose couplings protect the piping. The flexible hoses won't break the ridged pipework; they will stretch.
The high-pressure regulator controls the pneumatic pressure necessary for all ESVs to operate effectively.
GasnTools offer the most excellent propane Bullet tanks at affordable prices. Offering high-quality bullet tanks is what they are involved in doing due to their knowledge and experience in this particular field.
LPG gas is frequently kept and stored in these tanks. These LPG Above Ground Tanks serve a variety of industrial utilities quite effectively. Only top-notch raw materials and cutting-edge technologies are used when making this tank.
Nitrogen in liquid form is a colorless, odorless, nonflammable, inert cryogenic liquid. It has a boiling point of less than -130 °F (-196 °C). Although this product is freezing, Nitrogen is widely used in chemical analysis during sample preparation. It is employed in the concentration and condensing of liquid sample volumes. It is used in the production of explosives, nylon, nitric acid, fertilizers, and color-safe operation precautions must be taken when handling or using it in Dubai.
Buy Liquid Nitrogen Cylinder in the UAE from GasNtools and improve the display of your frozen items!Ways To Deliver Nitrogen
You must be wondering where to buy nitrogen gas. GasNtools is one of the best liquid nitrogen suppliers that can meet your needs for nitrogen gas no matter what they are. They provide nitrogen to:
Compressed nitrogen is offered in a variety of cylinder sizes:
40-liter nitrogen cylinder with a 6 m3 capacity at 140 bar and a 10 m3 capacity at 200 bar.
Different-sized pour spouts of liquid nitrogen are available.
Massive service: For high-volume applications, liquid nitrogen is transported in cryogenic tankers to on-site storage. It is kept as a cryogenic liquid in a vacuum-insulated vessel that can hold enough over many days and is available as either a liquid or a gas on demand.
It has spread throughout the industry and is now widely used in restaurants to quickly freeze liquids to ice creams and desserts for live food displays. Because liquid nitrogen has a temperature of -196 °C, the liquid ice cream mixture can be quickly cooled and frozen. Any remaining nitrogen escapes as a gas. Another advantage of freezing is that it reduces dehydration losses, which can reach crucial economic tiers with these items under ambient air. The cost of liquid nitrogen in Dubai is completely inexpensive. As a result, many customers approach GasNtools to obtain this nitrogen gas quickly and affordably.
Although liquid nitrogen is safe in food and beverages, it should not be consumed immediately. Before providing it to the customer, it must have vanished entirely from the food or drink. Because it can be highly hazardous or devastating if not handled properly, this product is only maintained by trained chefs.
When managing liquid Nitrogen, wear dielectrics gloves and carefully made PPEs (Personal Protective Equipment).
GasNtools is Dubai's most dependable nitrogen gas supplier. They always transport nitrogen gas in a trustable container. You must use a service elevator to transport this gas.