Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Monthly Refinery Report
The API gravity of crude oil input to U.S. refineries has generally increased, or gotten lighter, since 2011 because of changes in domestic production and imports. Regionally, refinery crude slates—or the mix of crude oil grades that a refinery is processing—have become lighter in the East Coast, Gulf Coast, and West Coast regions, and they have become slightly heavier in the Midwest and Rocky Mountain regions.
API gravity is measured as the inverse of the density of a petroleum liquid relative to water. The higher the API gravity, the lower the density of the petroleum liquid, so light oils have high API gravities. Crude oil with an API gravity greater than 38 degrees is generally considered light crude oil; crude oil with an API gravity of 22 degrees or below is considered heavy crude oil.
The crude slate processed in refineries situated along the Gulf Coast—the region with the most refining capacity in the United States—has had the largest increase in API gravity, increasing from an average of 30.0 degrees in 2011 to an average of 32.6 degrees in 2018. The West Coast had the heaviest crude slate in 2018 at 28.2 degrees, and the East Coast had the lightest of the three regions at 34.8 degrees.
Production of increasingly lighter crude oil in the United States has contributed to the overall lightening of the crude oil slate for U.S. refiners. The fastest-growing category of domestic production has been crude oil with an API gravity greater than 40 degrees, according to data in the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) Monthly Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production Report.
Since 2015, when EIA began collecting crude oil production data by API gravity, light crude oil production in the Lower 48 states has grown from an annual average of 4.6 million barrels per day (b/d) to 6.4 million b/d in the first seven months of 2019.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Monthly Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production Report
When setting crude oil slates, refiners consider logistical constraints and the cost of transportation, as well as their unique refinery configuration. For example, nearly all (more than 99% in 2018) crude oil imports to the Midwest and the Rocky Mountain regions come from Canada because of geographic proximity and existing pipeline and rail infrastructure between these regions.
Crude oil imports from Canada, which consist of mostly heavy crude oil, have increased by 67% since 2011 because of increased Canadian production. Crude oil imports from Canada have accounted for a greater share of refinery inputs in the Midwest and Rocky Mountain regions, leading to heavier refinery crude slates in these regions.
By comparison, crude oil production in Texas tends to be lighter: Texas accounted for half of crude oil production above 40 degrees API in the United States in 2018. The share of domestic crude oil in the Gulf Coast refinery crude oil slate increased from 36% in 2011 to 70% in 2018. As a result, the change in the average API gravity of crude oil processed in refineries in the Gulf Coast region was the largest increase among all regions in the United States during that period.
East Coast refineries have three ways to receive crude oil shipments, depending on which are more economical: by rail from the Midwest, by coastwise-compliant (Jones Act) tankers from the Gulf Coast, or by importing. From 2011 to 2018, the share of imported crude oil in the East Coast region decreased from 95% to 81% as the share of domestic crude oil inputs increased. Conversely, the share of imported crude oil at West Coast refineries increased from 46% in 2011 to 51% in 2018.
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“Communication is an art. Period”
It is true when we say that connecting with people is not everyone’s cup of tea. The first step is listening and then responding accordingly.
When it comes to chatting services, it becomes even more crucial to be clear and transparent.
It falls under the category of Managed Chat Services. People are trained to know inside out about a particular service/product.
But what are the exact requirements and features for anyone to become a chat service agent? Find about them below:
This form of communication requires the agent to understand the need of the user properly and respond in a way that the easiest for them to understand. This differs from person to person easily.
It has been found that using managed services helps in acquiring customers and converting leads easily. People get quick quality responses which creates a good image of the seller in their minds.
Be quick in responding. This show how alert and active the employees are. If the response takes a long amount of time, then it can leave the customer frustrated. This can end up creating a negative impact on the customer.
There can be times when a shopper can get distracted or can get busy exploring other options/varieties online. This can look like the customer has helped but the reality is far away from it. Give the user a sufficient amount of time before declaring a chat dead or unresponsive.
A Propane Bullet Tank, also known as LPG Above Ground Tanks, is used for storing liquid natural gas. The tanks have components that best fit your company's needs and are available in various sizes.
The size of a propane bullet tank can be anything from 6,000 and 30,000 gallons, with an 18,000 tank generally the most popular. Tank fill levels should not exceed 70–80% for liquid natural gas to expand inside the vessel.
For holding trucks to reach the site and collect liquids, a tank's average pressure should be approximately 250 psi. This will keep liquid natural gas contained and under low pressure.What & Where Is Propane Bullet Tank Used?
You're undoubtedly wondering, "Where should I utilize or keep them?" A propane bullet tank is linked to the cold separator drain on a Joule Thomson System (JTS) or mechanical refrigeration devices for the collection and short-term storage of the recovered natural gas liquids.
These tanks are also utilized in refineries and other end-use facilities for the bulk storage of goods that can be sold, such as propane or butane.
LPG is kept in propane bullet tanks because the liquid gas needs to be kept under intense pressure to remain fluid. Bullet tanks effectively do this because of their evenly dispersed, consistent pressure. Since there are no edges, there is also no possibility of a variable pressure region.
What Can a Propane Bullet Tank Do?
A channel called a bulkhead stanchion prevents unintentional vehicle pull-away.
The most important valve on any tank is the pressure relief valve. It is intended to release too much pressure.
The level gauge continuously measures the levels of liquid natural gas.
Reduces fluid loss during emergencies thanks to the emergency shutoff valve.
If trucking drives away while the hoses are still attached and move, the bulkhead, flexible hose, and hose couplings protect the piping. The flexible hoses won't break the ridged pipework; they will stretch.
The high-pressure regulator controls the pneumatic pressure necessary for all ESVs to operate effectively.
GasnTools offer the most excellent propane Bullet tanks at affordable prices. Offering high-quality bullet tanks is what they are involved in doing due to their knowledge and experience in this particular field.
LPG gas is frequently kept and stored in these tanks. These LPG Above Ground Tanks serve a variety of industrial utilities quite effectively. Only top-notch raw materials and cutting-edge technologies are used when making this tank.
Nitrogen in liquid form is a colorless, odorless, nonflammable, inert cryogenic liquid. It has a boiling point of less than -130 °F (-196 °C). Although this product is freezing, Nitrogen is widely used in chemical analysis during sample preparation. It is employed in the concentration and condensing of liquid sample volumes. It is used in the production of explosives, nylon, nitric acid, fertilizers, and color-safe operation precautions must be taken when handling or using it in Dubai.
Buy Liquid Nitrogen Cylinder in the UAE from GasNtools and improve the display of your frozen items!Ways To Deliver Nitrogen
You must be wondering where to buy nitrogen gas. GasNtools is one of the best liquid nitrogen suppliers that can meet your needs for nitrogen gas no matter what they are. They provide nitrogen to:
Compressed nitrogen is offered in a variety of cylinder sizes:
40-liter nitrogen cylinder with a 6 m3 capacity at 140 bar and a 10 m3 capacity at 200 bar.
Different-sized pour spouts of liquid nitrogen are available.
Massive service: For high-volume applications, liquid nitrogen is transported in cryogenic tankers to on-site storage. It is kept as a cryogenic liquid in a vacuum-insulated vessel that can hold enough over many days and is available as either a liquid or a gas on demand.
It has spread throughout the industry and is now widely used in restaurants to quickly freeze liquids to ice creams and desserts for live food displays. Because liquid nitrogen has a temperature of -196 °C, the liquid ice cream mixture can be quickly cooled and frozen. Any remaining nitrogen escapes as a gas. Another advantage of freezing is that it reduces dehydration losses, which can reach crucial economic tiers with these items under ambient air. The cost of liquid nitrogen in Dubai is completely inexpensive. As a result, many customers approach GasNtools to obtain this nitrogen gas quickly and affordably.
Although liquid nitrogen is safe in food and beverages, it should not be consumed immediately. Before providing it to the customer, it must have vanished entirely from the food or drink. Because it can be highly hazardous or devastating if not handled properly, this product is only maintained by trained chefs.
When managing liquid Nitrogen, wear dielectrics gloves and carefully made PPEs (Personal Protective Equipment).
GasNtools is Dubai's most dependable nitrogen gas supplier. They always transport nitrogen gas in a trustable container. You must use a service elevator to transport this gas.