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Overview

South Sudan was officially recognized as an independent nation state in July 2011 following a referendum held in January 2011. The South Sudanese voted overwhelmingly in favor of secession, which led to Sudan losing 75% of its oil reserves to South Sudan. Although South Sudan now controls a substantial number of the oil–producing fields, it is dependent on Sudan for transporting oil through its pipelines for processing and export. The transit and processing fees South Sudan must pay to Sudan to transport its crude oil are an important revenue stream for Sudan.[1]

After an agreement was reached on the transit dispute that led to a temporary shutdown of crude oil production, the governments of Sudan and South Sudan shifted their focus from border conflicts to the mitigation of their respective domestic opposition factions. The domestic political dynamics and the security situations in both countries will continue to be a potential risk for disrupting the countries’ oil supplies and exports.

In Sudan, the economic shock of the secession has had a significant effect on the economy, which has been hurt by economic mismanagement, corruption, and unsustainably high levels of spending on the military. The partial lifting of U.S. sanctions on Sudan in October 2017 has allowed for increased foreign investment, but Sudan has made little progress toward developing the upstream sector.[2] In August 2019, Sudan’s military and civilian leaders signed a power-sharing deal that paved the way for a transitional government led by Abdalla Hamdok, an economist, to take power in the hope this government would address the country’s problems. However, Sudan remains on the U.S. government’s list of state sponsors of terrorism, which prevents the country from receiving debt relief through the World Bank-International Monetary Fund’s Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative (HIPC).[3]

In South Sudan, President Salva Kiir and the leader of the main opposition faction, Riek Machar, reached a peace agreement in September 2018, which led to reduced violence from the civil war in South Sudan. Although the peace agreement indicates progress, whether the agreement will bring prolonged stability and an inclusive and stable form of governance is unclear. The current agreement is similar to the previous one, which was signed in 2016 and collapsed after two months, and the current iteration does not address crucial elements such as power sharing between the factions and security arrangements that would allow Machar to safely return from exile.[4] Without significant progress in improving the security and political environment, South Sudan’s ability to attract investors and restart production at its fields to increase production will be limited.

Sector organization

  • Asian national oil companies (NOCs) dominate the oil sectors in both countries. The China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), India’s Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC), and Malaysia’s Petronas hold large stakes in the leading consortia operating in both countries: the Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company, the Dar Petroleum Operating Company, and the Sudd Petroleum Operating Company.
  • The state–owned Sudanese Petroleum Corporation (SPC) was dissolved in March 2019, by order of Prime Minister Mohamed Tahir Ayala, and all assets and employees were transferred to the Ministry of Petroleum. The SPC was responsible for the exploration, production, and distribution of crude oil and petroleum products. The reason for the dissolution of the SPC has not yet been released.[5]


Petroleum and other liquids

Exploration and production

  • The lifting of U.S. sanctions imposed on Sudan has led to a renewed push by the Sudanese government to attract foreign investment in the upstream sector during the past few years, but Sudan has not made any substantial progress toward developing new fields that would lead to increased production.
  • In March 2019, an offer of 10 oil and natural gas exploration blocks in the Red Sea’s Halayeb triangle sparked a dispute between Egypt and Sudan. Egypt controls the territory, but Sudan has claimed the territory as Sudanese since the 1950s.[6]
  • South Sudan has restarted production at some of its previously shut-in fields in the Toma South and Unity fields in September 2018 and January 2019, providing a marginal increase to its total production. South Sudan seeks to increase total production to more than 200,000 b/d by the end of 2019. However, uncertainty remains on whether Sudan can do so under the export licensing restrictions the U.S. Department of State imposed on South Sudan’s Ministry of Energy, Nilepet (the National Oil and Gas Corporation of South Sudan), and the three major oil field operators in the country: DPOC, GPOC, and SPOC.[7] The licensing restrictions hinder the operators’ ability to secure the equipment and services required to develop or re-start production at its fields.[8]
  • In 2018, the government withdrew from negotiations to explore and develop blocks B1 and B2, and it is reportedly in talks with CNPC to acquire the blocks.[9]

Midstream infrastructure

  • Plans for the construction of a separate pipeline have been reported that would allow South Sudan to export crude oil through neighboring Kenya or Djibouti through Ethiopia to avoid transit fees.[10] However, the pipeline is not likely to be built in the near future because of the overall weak security environment and resulting supply disruptions to crude oil production in South Sudan.

Refining and refined oil products

  • Discussions between Sudanese and Chinese officials on a proposed second expansion to the refinery in Khartoum that could double the refinery’s capacity have been reported, but no significant progress has been made.[11]
  • Petronas signed a contract with the Ministry of Energy and Mining to expand the inactive Port Sudan refinery through a 50/50 joint venture and to add 100,000 b/d to its capacity, but development has been postponed as a result of rising costs.[12]
  • In South Sudan, two refineries were under construction: a 3,000-b/d refinery at Bentiu in the Unity State and a 10,000–b/d refinery at Thiangrial in the Upper Nile region. Plans to expand the Bentiu refinery to increase its capacity to 5,000 b/d have been reported. However, security issues have delayed completion, and unclear when or if the refineries will be operational is unclear.[13]

Petroleum and other liquids exports

  • According to ClipperData, Sudan and South Sudan exported about 114,000 b/d of crude oil in 2018. Although this level is higher than the 65,000 b/d exported in 2012 during the production shutdown, it is lower than the 182,000 b/d exported in 2014.
  • China is the largest export destination for Sudan’s and South Sudan’s crude oil. China received almost 60% of both countries’ total exports in 2018, although the total volume of exports has declined during the past few years. India and the United Arab Emirates have also imported relatively small volumes of Sudan and South Sudan’s crude oil.



Natural gas

  • Natural gas associated with oil fields is mostly flared or reinjected. Despite proved reserves of 3 trillion cubic feet, natural gas development has been limited. According to the latest estimates provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Sudan flared about 13.5 billion cubic feet of natural gas in 2017.[14]



Energy consumption

  • Petroleum consumption in Sudan and South Sudan peaked at 140,000 b/d in 2016 and has remained steady since then.[15]
  • In 2016, total primary energy consumption in Sudan was 0.357 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) and in South Sudan was 0.017 quadrillion Btu, according to latest estimates. About 80% of total primary energy consumption in Sudan is derived from petroleum and other liquid fuels, and the remainder comes from renewables such as biomass. In South Sudan, nearly all of the primary energy consumption was from petroleum and other liquid fuels.[16]


Electricity

Sudan

  • Total electricity generation in Sudan was 14 billion kilowatthours (kWh) in 2016, of which 57% was generated by hydropower.[17]
  • Although power generation has continued to grow in the post-independence era, only 39% of the population had access to electricity in 2016, according to latest estimates from the World Bank.[18] Urban populations benefit from a substantially higher level of access than rural populations, according to the most recent estimates from the African Development Bank (AfDB). People who are not connected to a grid rely on biomass or diesel-fired generators for electricity.[19]
  • Given its heavy reliance on hydropower to meet its electricity needs, the government of Sudan has sought to diversify its power portfolio mix with thermal and even nuclear power sources. However, it is uncertain whether there will be significant progress towards constructing power plants utilizing these fuel types.[20]

South Sudan

  • Total electricity generation in South Sudan was 0.4 billion kWh in 2016, nearly all of which was generated by crude oil.[21]
  • South Sudan has one of the lowest electrification rates in the world; only 9% of its population had access to electricity in 2016, according to the latest estimates from the World Bank.[22]
  • In 2018, the government of South Sudan commissioned a 100 megawatt (MW) thermal power plant in Juba, which could potentially meet a substantial portion of the country’s electricity needs. The plant is expected to reduce consumption of heavy fuel, upon which generators, the primary source of electricity in the country, rely.[23]
  • The government of South Sudan signed an agreement with the government of Uganda in October 2017 to construct an interconnection line between the two countries. The line will connect the electricity grid in Kampala, the Ugandan capital, and supply electricity to Kaya and Nimule, two of South Sudan’s border towns. The agreement is reportedly in line with the East African Power Pool agreement and should address the serious lack of access to electricity in the remote and rural areas of South Sudan.[24]


Renewable Energy Sources

Hydroelectricity

  • Development of the Kajbar dam, located further north in the Nile Valley, has stalled. The dam was strongly opposed by local communities because of its potentially significant environmental impact, and there has been no sign of progress on its construction. The Kajbar dam, along with two other proposed hydropower projects, the Dal and El-Shireig dams, are heavily financed by the Saudi government.[25]
  • According to BMI Research, five hydropower projects have been identified as potential opportunities for development: Fula Rapids (42 MW), Grand Fula (890 MW), Shukkoli (230 MW), Lakki (410 MW), and Bedden (570 MW). However, construction has been delayed because of a lack of funding.[26]


Sudan South Sudan petroleum production supply oil products natural gas electricity renewable energy
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Making use of commercial timber pellet mill

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August, 03 2022
Seven Tips for Online Learning During COVID-19

It is no secret that the COVID-19 epidemic has forced us all to make significant changes in our lives. Remote work has been an option for businesses; K-12 schools have adopted distance learning as a necessity; many college students, who were previously enrolled in on-campus courses, now have to learn online.

While online learning carries many positive benefits that make it the preferred choice for millions of students, it doesn't come without its challenges--especially for students who are more familiar with in-person courses.

Here are seven tips from Jonathan Small (associate vice president for online learning at Regis College), that will help you to adapt your study habits to fully online learning.

Tips for Online Classes1. Take the time to plan ahead and understand when your assignment is due.

Online students interact with the subject matter and complete assignments via learning management software (LMS). Regis offers online classes through Moodle. Other popular tools include Canvas and Blackboard.

It doesn't matter what LMS you use, it is important that you take the time to familiarize yourself with the interface as well as your assignments. Take a look at the due dates for your assignments so you can create a realistic plan to complete them.

Small says that online classes are often structured in modular formats, which is different from face-to-face classes. You don't always have the physical reminder that your work is due in class. Online classes can be very busy, so students must organize their time.

2. Make sure you have enough time to study.

Many students at Regis and other universities pursue their education while also fulfilling other obligations. You have to balance work, childcare, family obligations, and internships.

Small says, "Chunking tasks is a great way for students to feel accomplished." You feel like you are making progress. You can also schedule a time to study, which will help you establish and maintain a routine.

3. Regular communication is essential for group projects.

Many college courses include group projects and assignments that you must compete with others in the class. This is true for both online and in-person courses. Small says that while in-person courses allow for group projects and bring people together face to face, online students must be careful about communicating effectively.

Groups must prioritize communication, regardless of whether it's via Zoom, email or phone call, instant messaging, shared documents, or any other form altogether.

Small says, "Find a system which works for everyone in your group and then follow up often."

4. Split up work groups early.

It is important that groups are able to properly divide tasks so that everyone has a fair share and everyone knows exactly what they have to do.

Small advises that group projects should be planned far in advance so that everyone can share the work and coordinate their efforts. This way, even if something isn’t due for a few more weeks, everyone has the opportunity to use their time and work on their tasks as they can.

5. Keep in touch with your professor frequently.

As important as it is to communicate with your classmates and group members, it's equally important that you communicate with your instructor or professor. Whether you need help with an assignment, or simply want to share your struggles with them, make the effort to contact your professor.

Small says that talking to your instructor is key to success. Small says that you don't have to struggle with your questions and concerns alone. The professor can help. Talking to your instructor for five minutes can help you save days of stress. You will feel better, get more clarity, and be more successful.

You don't have to communicate only when things are going wrong. You can build a rapport with your instructor by letting them know when things are going well.

6. Participate as often as you can

Participation is key to your success, no matter if you are taking classes online or in person. Active participation not only shows your professor you are engaged but also shows you are learning and willing to do the work required to succeed. Participation transforms education from a passive process to one that is active.

Small says that the more you take part as a student the better your experience will be.

7. Flexibility is key.

Flexibility is key to online learning, both for you and your fellow students--and even your professors.

Small says, "Remember that your instructors had only to switch to remote teaching within a weekend. That's the same time it took to transition to online learning."

"This happened by accident. It's possible to restore the campus community by simply being compassionate, active in your course material, and talking to your instructors. This will make the transition smoother.

Put in the Work

Online learning might not be your first choice. However, the tips and advice above will help you make the most of your online courses. Clear and open communication with your classmates and instructors, as well as staying focused on the course material, will be key to your success in this difficult time.

Related article from studentjob.co.uk : http://www.studentjob.co.uk/blog/5757-best-online-exam-help-top-five-websites-you-can-trust 

Related Resources:

Are Online Classes Worth It? 12 Pros & Cons Of Online Learning

Tips to Be Successful in Your Online Classes In 2022

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The Impact of Online Classes on Students


August, 02 2022
What is a Satire Essay and How Does It Work?

One of the most popular literary devices or genres is Satire. This genre is especially designed to criticize someone or group of people for their vices, wrongdoings, or shortcomings.


Usually, humor is used to highlight important political and cultural issues in a society. A satire article is a type essay that uses humor, sarcasm, and irony to ridicule a person, situation, or ideology. It pokes fun in an elite and sarcastic fashion at certain people or situations.


How to Write Satire Essays: Writing Tips

How do you write a satire article? It doesn't have to be difficult, even though it seems daunting. However, once you use the following tips, it can be an easy task to write a satire article.


Choose a relevant and original topic

This is why you will need to create a satire essay. Your first step is to pick a satirical essay topic. You may be assigned a topic by your professor or teacher in some instances, but you would need to create your topic.


Decide the topic of your essay. Depending on what you are interested in, you can choose to concentrate on either a political or societal situation.


However, it's a good idea to choose a topic you are already familiar with. This will make it easier to locate facts and evidence to support the views you hold.


Consider your audience

Your essay is the center of attention. You must consider your audience at every stage of the writing process. Your essay should be addressed to college professors or high school students.


Are professionals reading it or are you just a student? It is important to consider your audience and determine the right tone for your essay.


A casual tone is acceptable if your target audience is mostly friends and students. It's best to use a formal tone if your target audience is professionals.


Add humor!

What makes a humorous essay so engaging? It is the topic, or the writer's writing style that makes satire essays so interesting. Humor is the key ingredient to any satire essay. You want your audience to laugh at the absurdity or inanity of a person or situation. Irony, sarcasm or hyperbole are all great ways to accomplish this end.


These devices can be very effective if used in a thoughtful manner.


Be clear about the facts

Because satirical essays often use exaggeration and humor, it is crucial to write an essay that is straightforward. An essay that contains false or misleading information will not be accepted by the court of public opinion.


Therefore, facts should only be stated that are supported by strong evidence. If you want to give credibility, be sure to cite the source of your information after citing figures, theories, opinions, etc.


This would ensure your audience that your essay was credible. Avoid including arguments that you are unable to prove or find evidence.


Use the ELP Format

ELP format is a great tool to ensure that your satire essay will be professional and high-quality. ELP is an acronym that stands for ethos, logos, and pathos.


These three elements make up a large part of an essay and can either help or hinder your work. These elements are important and can be used in your essay.


Ethos informs readers about the topic at hand and their preexisting beliefs. To provide a foundation for readers, Ethos should be used as a tool in the introduction.


Logos give credibility to your work by providing facts and figures for the audience.


As the name implies, pathos will elicit the appropriate emotions and feelings from your audience. You can use this tool to invoke sadness, sympathy, anger or any other emotion.


Be tolerant

It is important to avoid making offensive statements in satire essays, even though they are often filled with irony or sarcasm.


Your audience will likely include people from all walks of life. Therefore, it is important not to make comments that could be considered discriminatory or offensive for a particular section.


The art of discerning the right line between humor and offensiveness is delicate and requires practice. You can ask teachers or colleagues to give you second opinions so that your essay doesn't offend.

Learn more at: https://proessays.net/blog/40-witty-topics-for-a-satirical-essay


July, 25 2022