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Last Updated: January 6, 2020
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Today's This Week in Petroleum articles were originally published throughout 2019. New feature articles of This Week in Petroleum will return on January 8, 2020. The retail price and inventory paragraphs, charts, and tables accompanying the feature article have been updated to reflect data from the latest Weekly Petroleum Status Report for the week ending December 27, 2019.

(Published: July 3, 2019) Planned shutdown of Philadelphia refinery will change gasoline and diesel supply patterns for the U.S. East Coast

Operating capacity and number of East Coast refineries

On Friday, June 21, the Philadelphia Energy Solutions (PES) 335,000 barrels per day (b/d) refinery in South Philadelphia experienced a major fire and explosion. The resulting damage to the refinery and preexisting financial strains led PES to announce its intention to shut down operations at the refinery. The closure of the Philadelphia refinery would decrease the number of operating East Coast refineries to seven and total operating capacity to 889,000 b/d (Figure 1). The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates closing the Philadelphia refinery would reduce East Coast gasoline supplies by approximately 160,000 b/d and distillate supplies by approximately 100,000 b/d. The potential shutdown of the largest refinery by capacity on the U.S. East Coast is likely to reconfigure petroleum product supply chains in the Central Atlantic.

(Published: July 17, 2019) The crude oil adjustment accounts for differences in supply and disposition

Figure 2. U.S. crude oil balance and role of adjustment

The U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) provides weekly estimates of U.S. crude oil supply, including a measure of how well the supply of crude oil and the disposition of crude oil balance with each other. This measure—referred to as the adjustment—is a derived term equal to the difference between supply and disposition. If the reported supply and disposition of crude oil balanced perfectly each week, the adjustment would equal zero. For several reasons, however, this is rarely the case.

(Published: September 18, 2019) Saudi Arabia crude oil production outage will affect global oil markets and U.S. gasoline prices

Saudi Arabia crude oil production and exports

On Saturday, September 14, 2019, an attack damaged the Saudi Aramco Abqaiq oil processing facility and the Khurais oil field in eastern Saudi Arabia. The Abqaiq oil processing facility is the world's largest crude oil processing and stabilization plant with a capacity of 7 million barrels per day (b/d), equivalent to about 7% of global crude oil production capacity. On Monday, September 16, 2019, the first full day of trading after the attack, Brent and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil prices experienced the largest single day price increase since August 21, 2008 and June 29, 2012, respectively.

(Published: November 6, 2019) Changing nature of non-OPEC supply types may be affecting the crude oil futures market

Ratio of futures contract open interest to production

Changes in the oil investment and production cycle may be affecting trading dynamics for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Brent crude oil futures contracts. Many U.S. producers that may have traditionally hedged production years in advance may now only need to hedge using short-dated portions of the futures curve. Many domestic producers have shifted their production portfolios toward tight oil production, which has a short investment and production cycle, and could be reducing their participation in long-dated WTI futures. For example, the ratio of open interest for WTI contract months 13 and longer to current U.S. monthly production has declined since 2013. In contrast, as of October 2019, a similar ratio for Brent crude oil to production outside the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the United States increased to its third-highest level, suggesting increased liquidity in long-dated Brent futures (Figure 1). Brent is the relevant crude oil benchmark used among non-OPEC, non-U.S. oil producers. Similar research from the research from the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) published last year suggests the lower open interest among long-dated WTI futures contracts is a result of the changing investment and production cycle for U.S. oil production. In contrast, new upstream projects outside the United States are primarily deepwater projects, which have a long investment and production horizon. These qualities could be contributing to increased participation in the long-dated portion of the Brent future curve.

(Published: December 4, 2019) September was the first month the United States recorded exporting more petroleum than it imported

U.S. monthly total petroleum trade (crude oil and products)

In September 2019, the United States exported 89,000 barrels per day (b/d) more petroleum (crude oil and petroleum products) than it imported, the first month this happened since monthly records began in 1973 (Figure 1).

U.S. average regular gasoline and diesel prices increase

The U.S. average regular gasoline retail price rose nearly 4 cents from the previous week to $2.57 per gallon on December 30, 31 cents higher than the same time last year. The Gulf Coast price rose nearly 7 cents to $2.28 per gallon, the Midwest price increased nearly 5 cents to $2.45 per gallon, and the East Coast price rose nearly 4 cents to $2.50 per gallon. The Rocky Mountain price fell nearly 3 cents to $2.66 per gallon, and the West Coast price fell nearly 1 cent to $3.22 per gallon.

The U.S. average diesel fuel price rose nearly 3 cents from the previous week to $3.07 per gallon on December 30, 2 cents higher than a year ago. The Gulf Coast price increased nearly 5 cents to $2.81 per gallon, the East Coast price rose more than 4 cents to $3.10 per gallon, the West Coast price increased nearly 3 cents to $3.62 per gallon, and the Midwest price increased 1 cent to $2.98 per gallon. The Rocky Mountain price fell more than 1 cent to $3.11 per gallon.

Propane/propylene inventories decline slightly

U.S. propane/propylene stocks decreased by 0.2 million barrels last week to 88.2 million barrels as of December 27, 2019, 8.1 million barrels (10.1%) greater than the five-year (2014-2018) average inventory levels for this same time of year. Midwest and Rocky Mountain/West Coast inventories decreased by 0.3 million barrels and 0.1 million barrels, respectively. East Coast inventories increased by 0.2 million barrels, and Gulf Coast inventories increased slightly, remaining virtually unchanged. Propylene non-fuel-use inventories represented 6.8% of total propane/propylene inventories.

Residential heating oil prices increase, propane prices decrease

As of December 30, 2019, residential heating oil prices averaged almost $3.08 per gallon, more than 2 cents per gallon above last week’s price but more than 2 cents per gallon below last year’s price at this time. Wholesale heating oil prices averaged nearly $2.16 per gallon, almost 3 cents per gallon higher than last week’s price and more than 38 cents per gallon higher than a year ago.

Residential propane prices averaged nearly $2.02 per gallon, less than 1 cent per gallon below last week’s price and almost 42 cents per gallon less than a year ago. Wholesale propane prices averaged more than $0.71 per gallon, almost 6 cents per gallon lower than last week’s price and more than 8 cents per gallon below last year’s price.

diesel gasoline propane EIA
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Latest issue of GEO ExPro magazine covers Europe and Frontier Exploration, Modelling and Mapping, and Geochemistry.

GEO ExPro Vol. 16, No. 6 was published on 9th December 2019 bringing light to the latest science and technology activity in the global geoscience community within the oil, gas and energy sector.

This issue focusses on oil and gas exploration in frontier regions within Europe, with stories and articles discussing new modelling and mapping technologies available to the industry. This issue also presents several articles discussing the discipline of geochemistry and how it can be used to further enhance hydrocarbon exploration.

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January, 20 2020
Your Weekly Update: 13 - 17 January 2020

Market Watch   

Headline crude prices for the week beginning 13 January 2020 – Brent: US$64/b; WTI: US$59/b

  • Tensions in the Persian Gulf have abated, but not disappeared, as both the US and Iran stepped back from going to war; the buck, so far, has stopped with Tehran’s retaliation to the US assassination of its top general with a barrage of missile strikes at US bases in Iraq
  • The underlying situation is still fragile, with the Iranian population swinging from supporting the government to protesting its accidental downing of a commercial Ukraine Airlines plane; with the risk of war easing, crude prices have fallen back to their pre-crisis levels
  • However, American and foreign oil companies have pulled their staff from crude fields in northern Iraq and Kurdistan, including Chevron, as the oil industry in Iraq monitors the risk – and consequences – of military action
  • In precaution, oil tankers have begun boosting their rates once again to haul crude through the Persian Gulf, with quoted rates now at their highest level since the 2019 attacks on ships passing through the narrow straight
  • Although political tensions remain fresh, Saudi Arabia said that OPEC and the OPEC+ club were instead focused on using their window of production cuts to reduce excess oil stockpiles to levels ‘within the contours of 2010-2014’
  • In the US, not only is shale output staying strong, but production in the US Gulf of Mexico also made history, exceeding 2 mmb/d for the first time ever in 2019, beating the previous high recorded in 2018
  • Worries about the health of global oil demand persist… although the US and China signed a Phase 1 trade deal, the agreement is more about halting escalation of the trade war than repairing inflicted damage; a slowdown in Chinese economic growth could lead to oil demand growth halving in 2020 in China according to CNPC
  • The US active rig count fell for a second consecutive week, losing 15 rigs – 11 oil and 4 gas – for the 17th weekly decline of the past 20 weeks; losses in the Permian were once again high, shedding a total of 6 rigs
  • Crude oil prices should remain rangebound with Brent at US$63-65/b and WTI at US$57-59/b, as the market retreats back to its ever-present worries about demand while geopolitical risk premiums scale back


Headlines of the week

Upstream

  • Guyana’s success is now extending to its neighbours, with Total and Apache announcing a ‘significant’ oil discovery at their Maka Central-1 well in Suriname’s Block 58, which lies adjacent to the prolific Stabroek Block
  • BP has agreed to sell its operating interest in the UK North Sea’s Andrew assets – including the Andrew platform as well as the Andrew, Arundel, Cyrus, Farragon, and Kinnoull fields – along with its 27.5% non-operating interest in the Shearwater field to Premier Oil for some US$625 million
  • Liberia will kick start its next offshore licensing round in April 2020, offering nine blocks in the Harper basin, one of the few offshore regions in West Africa that remains unexplored and undrilled
  • Equinor has extended the life of its Statfjord assets beyond 2030, with plans to commission up to 100 new wells over the next decade, deferring decommissioning with a goal of maintaining current output levels beyond 2025
  • After Murphy Oil, Petrofac and ExxonMobil, Repsol is the latest major considering an upstream exit from Malaysia, covering assets that include six development blocks and the major Kinabalu oilfield in Sabah
  • Senegal’s government has approved Woodside’s offshore Sangomar Field Development, which will involve the drilling of 23 subsea wells and a FPSO with the capacity to process up to 100,000 b/d of crude
  • Equinor has announced plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from its offshore fields and onshore plants in Norway by 40% by 2030, 70% by 2040 and to near zero by 2050 from 2019 levels

Midstream/Downstream

  • Shell is reportedly seeking buyers for its 144 kb/d Anacortes refinery in Washington state, which would be its third North American sale in two years after divesting its Martinez refinery in California and Sarnia refinery in Ontario
  • Shell has announced plans to increase its share of the Mexican fuel market to 15%, which would require considerable growth in its network of 200 fuel stations in 12 states that currently represent 1% of the market
  • Occidental Petroleum plans to reduce its holdings in Western Midstream Partners – acquired as part of its controversial takeover of Anadarko – to less than 50%, potentially removing up to US$7.8 billion of debt

Natural Gas/LNG

  • Sempra Energy and Saudi Aramco have signed an agreement that will see the Saudi giant play a bigger part in the planned 22 million tpa Port Arthurt LNG project, following an existing agreement to purchase 5 mtpa signed in May 2019
  • Kuwait Petroleum Corp has agreed to purchase 3 million tpa of LNG from Qatar Petroleum for 15 years beginning 2022, with Kuwait remaining one of the few countries in the Middle East that remain neutral to the Saudi-Qatar standoff
  • ExxonMobil has signed an agreement with midstream company Outrigger Energy II to build a 250 mmscf/d cryogenic gas processing, gathering and pipeline system in the Bakken’s Williston Basin in North Dakota
  • The Larak gas field in Sarawak has achieved first gas, operated by SapuraOMV Upstream as part of the SK408 PSC that includes the Gorek and Bakong fields, with output planned to be processed into LNG at Petronas’ Bintulu complex
  • Russia’s TurkStream natural gas pipeline – connecting Russia, Turkey, Bulgaria and eventually Serbia and Hungary - has officially begun operations, delivering up to 13 bcm of Russian gas that can be rerouted from the Ukraine route
January, 17 2020
EIA forecasts slower growth in natural gas-fired generation while renewable energy rises

annual U.S. electric power sector generation by energy source

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Short-Term Energy Outlook, January 2020

In its latest Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO), released on January 14, the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) forecasts that generation from natural gas-fired power plants in the electric power sector will grow by 1.3% in 2020. This growth rate would be the slowest growth rate in natural gas generation since 2017. EIA forecasts that generation from nonhydropower renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind, will grow by 15% in 2020—the fastest rate in four years. Forecast generation from coal-fired power plants declines by 13% in 2020.

During the past decade, the electric power sector has been retiring coal-fired generation plants while adding more natural gas generating capacity. In 2019, EIA estimates that 12.7 gigawatts (GW) of coal-fired capacity in the United States was retired, equivalent to 5% of the total existing coal-fired capacity at the beginning of the year. An additional 5.8 GW of U.S. coal capacity is scheduled to retire in 2020, contributing to a forecast 13% decline in coal-fired generation this year. In contrast, EIA estimates that the electric power sector has added or plans to add 11.4 GW of capacity at natural gas combined-cycle power plants in 2019 and 2020.

Generating capacity fueled by renewable energy sources, especially solar and wind, has increased steadily in recent years. EIA expects the U.S. electric power sector will add 19.3 GW of new utility-scale solar capacity in 2019 and 2020, a 65% increase from 2018 capacity levels. EIA expects a 32% increase of new wind capacity—or nearly 30 GW—to be installed in 2019 and 2020. Much of this new renewables capacity comes online at the end of the year, which affects generation trends in the following year.

Forecast generation mix varies in each of the 11 STEO electricity supply regions. A large proportion of the retired coal-fired capacity is located in the mid-Atlantic area, where PJM manages the dispatch of electricity. EIA forecasts that coal generation in the mid-Atlantic will decline by 37 billion kilowatthours (kWh) in 2020. Some of this decline is offset by more generation from mid-Atlantic natural gas-fired power plants; EIA expects generation from these plants to grow by 23 billion kWh.

forecast annual change in electric power sector generation by fuel

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Short-Term Energy Outlook, January 2020

In the Midwest, where the Midcontinent ISO (MISO) manages electricity, EIA expects coal generation to fall in 2020 by 33 billion kWh. This decline is offset by an increase in natural gas electricity generation (12 billion kWh) and by nonhydropower renewable energy sources (13 billion kWh). The regional increase in renewables is primarily a result of new wind generating capacity.

The electric power sector in the area of Texas managed by the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) is planning to see large increases in generating capacity from both wind and solar. EIA expects this new capacity will increase generation from nonhydropower renewable energy sources by 24 billion kWh this year. EIA expects the increased ERCOT renewable generation will lead to a regional decline of natural gas-fired generation and coal generation of 14 billion kWh for each fuel source in 2020.

EIA expects these trends to continue into 2021. EIA forecasts U.S. generation from nonhydropower renewable energy sources will grow by 17% next year as the electric power sector continues expanding solar and wind capacity. This increase in renewables, along with forecast increases in natural gas fuel costs, contributes to EIA’s forecast of a 2.3% decline in natural gas-fired generation in 2021. U.S. coal generation in 2021 is forecast to fall by 3.2%.

January, 17 2020