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Last Updated: February 12, 2020
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Forecast Highlights

Global liquid fuels

  • EIA expects global petroleum and liquid fuels demand will average 100.3 million barrels per day (b/d) in the first quarter of 2020. This demand level is 0.9 million b/d less than forecast in the January STEO and reflects both the effects of the coronavirus and warmer-than-normal January temperatures across much of the northern hemisphere. EIA now expects global petroleum and liquid fuels demand will rise by 1.0 million b/d in 2020, which is lower than the forecast increase in the January STEO of 1.3 million b/d in 2020, and by 1.5 million b/d in 2021.
  • EIA’s global petroleum and liquid fuels supply forecast assumes that the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) will reduce crude oil production by 0.5 million b/d from March through May because of lower expected global oil demand in early 2020. This OPEC reduction is in addition to the cuts announced at the group’s December 2019 meeting. EIA now forecasts OPEC crude oil production will average 28.9 million b/d in 2020, which is 0.3 million less than forecast in the January STEO. In addition to these production cuts, EIA’s lower forecast OPEC production reflects ongoing crude oil production outages in Libya during the first quarter. In general, EIA assumes that OPEC will limit production through all of 2020 and 2021 to target relatively balanced global oil markets.
  • Global liquid fuels inventories fell by roughly 0.1 million b/d in 2019, and EIA expects they will grow by 0.2 million b/d in 2020. Although EIA expects inventories to rise overall in 2020, EIA forecasts inventories will build by 0.6 million b/d in the first half of the year because of slow oil demand growth and strong non-OPEC oil supply growth. Firmer demand growth as the global economy strengthens and slower supply growth later in the year contribute to forecast inventory draws of 0.1 million b/d in the second half of 2020. EIA expects global liquid fuels inventories will decline by 0.2 million b/d in 2021.
  • Brent crude oil spot prices averaged $64 per barrel (b) in January, down $4/b from December. Brent prices fell steadily through January and into the first week of February, closing at less than $54/b on February 4, the lowest price since December 2018, reflecting market concerns about oil demand. EIA forecasts Brent prices will average $61/b in 2020; with prices averaging $58/b during the first half of the year and $64/b during the second half of the year. EIA forecasts the average Brent prices will rise to an average of $68/b in 2021.

Natural gas

  • In January, the Henry Hub natural gas spot price averaged $2.02 per million British thermal units (MMBtu), as warm weather contributed to below-average inventory withdrawals and put downward pressure on natural gas prices. As of February 6, the Henry Hub spot price had fallen to $1.86/MMBtu, and EIA expects prices will remain below $2.00/MMBtu in February and March. EIA forecasts that prices will rise in the second quarter of 2020, as U.S. natural gas production declines and natural gas use for power generation increases the demand for gas. EIA expects prices to average $2.36/MMBtu in the third quarter of 2020. EIA forecasts that Henry Hub natural gas spot prices will average $2.21/MMBtu in 2020. EIA expects that natural gas prices will then increase in 2021, reaching an annual average of $2.53/MMBtu.
  • U.S. dry natural gas production set a record in 2019, averaging 92.1 billion cubic feet per day (Bcf/d). Although EIA forecasts dry natural gas production will average 94.2 Bcf/d in 2020, a 2% increase from 2019, EIA expects monthly production to generally decline through 2020, falling from an estimated 95.4 Bcf/d in January to 92.5 Bcf/d in December. The falling production mostly occurs in the Appalachian and Permian regions. In the Appalachia region, low natural gas prices are discouraging natural gas-directed drilling, and in the Permian, low oil prices are expected to reduce associated gas output from oil-directed wells. In 2021, EIA forecasts dry natural gas production to stabilize near December 2020 levels at an annual average of 92.6 Bcf/d, a 2% decline from 2020, which would be the first decline in annual average natural gas production since 2016.
  • EIA estimates that U.S. working natural gas inventories ended January at more than 2.6 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), 9% higher than the five-year (2015–19) average. EIA forecasts that total working inventories will end March at almost 2.0 Tcf, 14% higher than the five-year average. In the forecast, inventories rise by a total of 2.1 Tcf during the April through October injection season to reach almost 4.1 Tcf on October 31, which would be the highest end-of-October inventory level on record.

Electricity, coal, renewables, and emissions

  • EIA expects the share of U.S. utility-scale electricity generation from natural gas-fired power plants will remain relatively steady; it was 37% in 2019, and EIA forecasts it will be 38% in 2020 and 37% in 2021. Electricity generation from renewable energy sources will rise from a share of 17% last year to 20% in 2020 and 21% in 2021. The increase in the renewables share is the result of expected use of additions to wind and solar generating capacity. Coal’s forecast share of electricity generation will fall from 24% in 2019 to 21% in both 2020 and 2021. The nuclear share of generation, which averaged slightly more than 20% in 2019 will be slightly lower than 20% by 2021, consistent with upcoming reactor retirements.
  • EIA forecasts that U.S. coal production will total 595 million short tons (MMst) in 2020, down 95 MMst (14%) from 2019. Lower production reflects declining demand for coal in the electric power sector and lower demand for U.S. exports. EIA forecasts that electric power sector demand for coal will fall by 81 MMst (15%) in 2020. EIA expects that coal production will stabilize in 2021 as export demand stabilizes and U.S. power sector demand for coal increases because of rising natural gas prices.
  • After decreasing by 2.3% in 2019, EIA forecasts that energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions will decrease by 2.7% in 2020 and by 0.5% in 2021. Declining emissions in 2020 reflect forecast declines in total U.S. energy consumption because of increases in energy efficiency and weather effects, particularly as a result of warmer-than-normal January temperatures. A forecast return to normal temperatures in 2021 results in a slowing decline in emissions. Energy-related CO2 emissions are sensitive to changes in weather, economic growth, energy prices, and fuel mix.

STEO Short-Term Energy Outlook liquid fuels EIA Brent Natural Gas Coal renewables emissions electricity
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It is no secret that the COVID-19 epidemic has forced us all to make significant changes in our lives. Remote work has been an option for businesses; K-12 schools have adopted distance learning as a necessity; many college students, who were previously enrolled in on-campus courses, now have to learn online.

While online learning carries many positive benefits that make it the preferred choice for millions of students, it doesn't come without its challenges--especially for students who are more familiar with in-person courses.

Here are seven tips from Jonathan Small (associate vice president for online learning at Regis College), that will help you to adapt your study habits to fully online learning.

Tips for Online Classes1. Take the time to plan ahead and understand when your assignment is due.

Online students interact with the subject matter and complete assignments via learning management software (LMS). Regis offers online classes through Moodle. Other popular tools include Canvas and Blackboard.

It doesn't matter what LMS you use, it is important that you take the time to familiarize yourself with the interface as well as your assignments. Take a look at the due dates for your assignments so you can create a realistic plan to complete them.

Small says that online classes are often structured in modular formats, which is different from face-to-face classes. You don't always have the physical reminder that your work is due in class. Online classes can be very busy, so students must organize their time.

2. Make sure you have enough time to study.

Many students at Regis and other universities pursue their education while also fulfilling other obligations. You have to balance work, childcare, family obligations, and internships.

Small says, "Chunking tasks is a great way for students to feel accomplished." You feel like you are making progress. You can also schedule a time to study, which will help you establish and maintain a routine.

3. Regular communication is essential for group projects.

Many college courses include group projects and assignments that you must compete with others in the class. This is true for both online and in-person courses. Small says that while in-person courses allow for group projects and bring people together face to face, online students must be careful about communicating effectively.

Groups must prioritize communication, regardless of whether it's via Zoom, email or phone call, instant messaging, shared documents, or any other form altogether.

Small says, "Find a system which works for everyone in your group and then follow up often."

4. Split up work groups early.

It is important that groups are able to properly divide tasks so that everyone has a fair share and everyone knows exactly what they have to do.

Small advises that group projects should be planned far in advance so that everyone can share the work and coordinate their efforts. This way, even if something isn’t due for a few more weeks, everyone has the opportunity to use their time and work on their tasks as they can.

5. Keep in touch with your professor frequently.

As important as it is to communicate with your classmates and group members, it's equally important that you communicate with your instructor or professor. Whether you need help with an assignment, or simply want to share your struggles with them, make the effort to contact your professor.

Small says that talking to your instructor is key to success. Small says that you don't have to struggle with your questions and concerns alone. The professor can help. Talking to your instructor for five minutes can help you save days of stress. You will feel better, get more clarity, and be more successful.

You don't have to communicate only when things are going wrong. You can build a rapport with your instructor by letting them know when things are going well.

6. Participate as often as you can

Participation is key to your success, no matter if you are taking classes online or in person. Active participation not only shows your professor you are engaged but also shows you are learning and willing to do the work required to succeed. Participation transforms education from a passive process to one that is active.

Small says that the more you take part as a student the better your experience will be.

7. Flexibility is key.

Flexibility is key to online learning, both for you and your fellow students--and even your professors.

Small says, "Remember that your instructors had only to switch to remote teaching within a weekend. That's the same time it took to transition to online learning."

"This happened by accident. It's possible to restore the campus community by simply being compassionate, active in your course material, and talking to your instructors. This will make the transition smoother.

Put in the Work

Online learning might not be your first choice. However, the tips and advice above will help you make the most of your online courses. Clear and open communication with your classmates and instructors, as well as staying focused on the course material, will be key to your success in this difficult time.

Related article from studentjob.co.uk : http://www.studentjob.co.uk/blog/5757-best-online-exam-help-top-five-websites-you-can-trust 

Related Resources:

Are Online Classes Worth It? 12 Pros & Cons Of Online Learning

Tips to Be Successful in Your Online Classes In 2022

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What is a Satire Essay and How Does It Work?

One of the most popular literary devices or genres is Satire. This genre is especially designed to criticize someone or group of people for their vices, wrongdoings, or shortcomings.


Usually, humor is used to highlight important political and cultural issues in a society. A satire article is a type essay that uses humor, sarcasm, and irony to ridicule a person, situation, or ideology. It pokes fun in an elite and sarcastic fashion at certain people or situations.


How to Write Satire Essays: Writing Tips

How do you write a satire article? It doesn't have to be difficult, even though it seems daunting. However, once you use the following tips, it can be an easy task to write a satire article.


Choose a relevant and original topic

This is why you will need to create a satire essay. Your first step is to pick a satirical essay topic. You may be assigned a topic by your professor or teacher in some instances, but you would need to create your topic.


Decide the topic of your essay. Depending on what you are interested in, you can choose to concentrate on either a political or societal situation.


However, it's a good idea to choose a topic you are already familiar with. This will make it easier to locate facts and evidence to support the views you hold.


Consider your audience

Your essay is the center of attention. You must consider your audience at every stage of the writing process. Your essay should be addressed to college professors or high school students.


Are professionals reading it or are you just a student? It is important to consider your audience and determine the right tone for your essay.


A casual tone is acceptable if your target audience is mostly friends and students. It's best to use a formal tone if your target audience is professionals.


Add humor!

What makes a humorous essay so engaging? It is the topic, or the writer's writing style that makes satire essays so interesting. Humor is the key ingredient to any satire essay. You want your audience to laugh at the absurdity or inanity of a person or situation. Irony, sarcasm or hyperbole are all great ways to accomplish this end.


These devices can be very effective if used in a thoughtful manner.


Be clear about the facts

Because satirical essays often use exaggeration and humor, it is crucial to write an essay that is straightforward. An essay that contains false or misleading information will not be accepted by the court of public opinion.


Therefore, facts should only be stated that are supported by strong evidence. If you want to give credibility, be sure to cite the source of your information after citing figures, theories, opinions, etc.


This would ensure your audience that your essay was credible. Avoid including arguments that you are unable to prove or find evidence.


Use the ELP Format

ELP format is a great tool to ensure that your satire essay will be professional and high-quality. ELP is an acronym that stands for ethos, logos, and pathos.


These three elements make up a large part of an essay and can either help or hinder your work. These elements are important and can be used in your essay.


Ethos informs readers about the topic at hand and their preexisting beliefs. To provide a foundation for readers, Ethos should be used as a tool in the introduction.


Logos give credibility to your work by providing facts and figures for the audience.


As the name implies, pathos will elicit the appropriate emotions and feelings from your audience. You can use this tool to invoke sadness, sympathy, anger or any other emotion.


Be tolerant

It is important to avoid making offensive statements in satire essays, even though they are often filled with irony or sarcasm.


Your audience will likely include people from all walks of life. Therefore, it is important not to make comments that could be considered discriminatory or offensive for a particular section.


The art of discerning the right line between humor and offensiveness is delicate and requires practice. You can ask teachers or colleagues to give you second opinions so that your essay doesn't offend.

Learn more at: https://proessays.net/blog/40-witty-topics-for-a-satirical-essay


July, 25 2022