Easwaran Kanason

Co - founder of NrgEdge
Last Updated: April 15, 2021
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Business Trends
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And then, there was hydrogen. Soon after the universe was formed through the Big Bang, the vast expanse of heat that sent time and space hurtling in infinite directions started to cool down. When this happened, the first nuclei began capturing electrons, forming the first two elements: hydrogen and helium. The lightest of all the gases, hydrogen is the first element in the periodic table – with only one proton and one electron – and the most abundant element in the universe. High school textbook facts aside, hydrogen is now a word buzzing with charisma in the energy industry as it could be the answer to decarbonising the world’s industries and spearheading a renewable future.

A quick primer on hydrogen. Current global demand stands at about 75 million metric tonnes, more than three times higher than equivalent consumption in 1975. About 40 million tonnes, or 53%, of this hydrogen is used in oil and natural gas refining – in processes such as hydrocracking or hydrotreating – while most of the remainder is used in the fertiliser industry to produce ammonia. Only a scant amount – 0.5% - is used in other applications.

But it isn’t about where hydrogen has been, but where it could go that has the world – energy and otherwise – excited. Over the past decade, many leading nation have started policies researching and supporting investment in hydrogen technologies, with at least 50 targets, mandates and policy incentives in place, and more arriving. There is a North-South divide in this, since hydrogen technology is being pursued by the likes of the European Union and Japan in their quest for a low or net-zero carbon future, while hydrogen is not mentioned at all in the most recent energy plans of countries such as Indonesia, Thailand, Pakistan or Nigeria. But the potential for hydrogen are a low-carbon replacement for heavy-carbon sources such as coal and fossil fuels is vast. In industry, where most of today’s hydrogen is used, hydrogen could increasingly be used in methanol and steel production, replacing the pollutant-heavy coal that coal, for example, plays in steel-making. In transport, hydrogen fuel cells are the future of road transportation, with alternatives also being developed for aviation and shipping. Hydrogen could also be blended in with existing natural gas networks without any major change in infrastructure for heating and cooling, while hydrogen-linked battery technologies are also the leading options for storing renewable energy from sources such as solar and wind farms. It could also be directly burnt in gas turbines as power generation; or more accurately, hydrogen-based ammonia could plan that role. With all these options in place – and the government backing to make it happen – it is not inconceivable that hydrogen demand could triple again over the next 30 years to over 200 million tonnes by 2050.

The problem is supply. Hydrogen is almost entirely supplied through fossil fuels, with an estimated 6% of global natural gas and 2% of coal dedicated solely to hydrogen production. So while hydrogen can be the replacement for carbon-intensive industries and fuels, the production of it is already carbon-heavy, with hydrogen production releasing some 830 million tonnes of carbon dioxide annually, more than the UK and Indonesia combined. Renewable hydrogen production is possible – mainly through water electrolysis – but infrastructure is scant because costs can be three times higher. This is why it is much cheaper to produce hydrogen in regions like the Middle East, Russia and North America - because natural gas is the largest component of production cost at between 45-75% - while the likes of Japan, China, India and South Korea have to import expensive natural gas to make even more expensive hydrogen.

Which is why the world is now no longer just talking about hydrogen, but an entire rainbow of hydrogen colours. There is brown hydrogen – directly extracted from coal using gasification. Then there is white hydrogen that is a by-product of industrial processes or black/grey hydrogen that is produced from natural gas using steam-methane reforming. Yellow hydrogen is produced through solar grid electricity via electrolysis while pink/red/purple hydrogen is a carbon-free option created through nuclear power that is politically-unfriendly. But the colours that are getting everyone the most excited are in the green-blue spectrum: turquoise hydrogen produced through the thermal splitting of methane that leaves solid carbon rather than carbon dioxide as a by-product; green hydrogen formed through water electrolysis with zero carbon emissions; and then blue hydrogen that is conventional black/grey or brown hydrogen but with all carbon dioxide emitted sequestered through Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology.

The ideal solution is green hydrogen, but costs and infrastructure may prevent this from ever being the only solution. The same caveat applies to turquoise hydrogen. Like it or not, blue hydrogen – which the probably the cheapest of the low/zero-carbon solutions but has opposition from certain quarters – will still play a major role in satisfying future hydrogen demand, which in itself should start a virtuous loop of reducing carbon emissions in industries where hydrogen as a fuel can take hold. The world’s leading energy supermajors and majors are already preparing for this. BP has announced plans to build the largest blue hydrogen production facility in the UK by 2030, while the US climate envoy for the Biden administration John Kerry is calling on the US oil and gas industry to embrace ‘huge opportunities’ in hydrogen. Shell has invested in a tech start-up developing a hydrogen-based zero-emissions aviation engine, while even state oil firms are making moves: Malaysia’s Petronas is expanding its investment into green and blue hydrogen along with advanced CCS projects, while the ever-vigilant Equinor is already part of the EU’s largest green hydrogen project that expects to have 10 GW of capacity by 2040 using renewable offshore wind farms. Crude oil giant Saudi Arabia has plans to become the world’s largest hydrogen exporter through a combination of blue hydrogen from its natural gas reserves and green/yellow hydrogen from solar power plants being built at the city of Neom along the Red Sea by 2025. And Hyundai Oilbank has a unique solution as well: it has signed up to import LPG from Saudi Aramco and convert that into blue hydrogen onsite at its Daesan refinery complex in South Korea’s Seosan province, which could be a model that proves that clean hydrogen does not necessarily have to be produced where the source fuel originates to make the best commercial sense.

If the buzzword for the 2000s and 2010s in the energy industry were LNG and shale, respectively, then the buzzword for the 2020s is likely to be hydrogen. Too many moves are being made by governments and too many investments approved by industry titans for this to be ignored. After all, a net-zero world will benefit everyone. And it seems that the first ever element to be create in this universe is the key to creating that future.

Market Outlook:

  • Crude price trading range: Brent – US$63-65/b, WTI – US$60-62/b
  • Global crude oil benchmarks edged up on a cocktail of opposing-factors, including fears of supply disruptions as Yemeni Houthi militants launched a fifth recent attack on Saudi Arabian oil infrastructure in Jubail and renewed fear of demand weakness as Covid infections rises alarmingly in certain regions, especially Europe, Brazil and India
  • The likelihood of prices returning to the US$70/b level is also unlikely, given that OPEC+ has signalled that it will begin easing supply quotas from May onwards – a decision supported by kingpin Saudi Arabia – but could be timely given recent fuels demand recovery in the US, UK, China and India, the latter having posted its stronger oil consumption figures in 15 months

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August, 03 2022
Seven Tips for Online Learning During COVID-19

It is no secret that the COVID-19 epidemic has forced us all to make significant changes in our lives. Remote work has been an option for businesses; K-12 schools have adopted distance learning as a necessity; many college students, who were previously enrolled in on-campus courses, now have to learn online.

While online learning carries many positive benefits that make it the preferred choice for millions of students, it doesn't come without its challenges--especially for students who are more familiar with in-person courses.

Here are seven tips from Jonathan Small (associate vice president for online learning at Regis College), that will help you to adapt your study habits to fully online learning.

Tips for Online Classes1. Take the time to plan ahead and understand when your assignment is due.

Online students interact with the subject matter and complete assignments via learning management software (LMS). Regis offers online classes through Moodle. Other popular tools include Canvas and Blackboard.

It doesn't matter what LMS you use, it is important that you take the time to familiarize yourself with the interface as well as your assignments. Take a look at the due dates for your assignments so you can create a realistic plan to complete them.

Small says that online classes are often structured in modular formats, which is different from face-to-face classes. You don't always have the physical reminder that your work is due in class. Online classes can be very busy, so students must organize their time.

2. Make sure you have enough time to study.

Many students at Regis and other universities pursue their education while also fulfilling other obligations. You have to balance work, childcare, family obligations, and internships.

Small says, "Chunking tasks is a great way for students to feel accomplished." You feel like you are making progress. You can also schedule a time to study, which will help you establish and maintain a routine.

3. Regular communication is essential for group projects.

Many college courses include group projects and assignments that you must compete with others in the class. This is true for both online and in-person courses. Small says that while in-person courses allow for group projects and bring people together face to face, online students must be careful about communicating effectively.

Groups must prioritize communication, regardless of whether it's via Zoom, email or phone call, instant messaging, shared documents, or any other form altogether.

Small says, "Find a system which works for everyone in your group and then follow up often."

4. Split up work groups early.

It is important that groups are able to properly divide tasks so that everyone has a fair share and everyone knows exactly what they have to do.

Small advises that group projects should be planned far in advance so that everyone can share the work and coordinate their efforts. This way, even if something isn’t due for a few more weeks, everyone has the opportunity to use their time and work on their tasks as they can.

5. Keep in touch with your professor frequently.

As important as it is to communicate with your classmates and group members, it's equally important that you communicate with your instructor or professor. Whether you need help with an assignment, or simply want to share your struggles with them, make the effort to contact your professor.

Small says that talking to your instructor is key to success. Small says that you don't have to struggle with your questions and concerns alone. The professor can help. Talking to your instructor for five minutes can help you save days of stress. You will feel better, get more clarity, and be more successful.

You don't have to communicate only when things are going wrong. You can build a rapport with your instructor by letting them know when things are going well.

6. Participate as often as you can

Participation is key to your success, no matter if you are taking classes online or in person. Active participation not only shows your professor you are engaged but also shows you are learning and willing to do the work required to succeed. Participation transforms education from a passive process to one that is active.

Small says that the more you take part as a student the better your experience will be.

7. Flexibility is key.

Flexibility is key to online learning, both for you and your fellow students--and even your professors.

Small says, "Remember that your instructors had only to switch to remote teaching within a weekend. That's the same time it took to transition to online learning."

"This happened by accident. It's possible to restore the campus community by simply being compassionate, active in your course material, and talking to your instructors. This will make the transition smoother.

Put in the Work

Online learning might not be your first choice. However, the tips and advice above will help you make the most of your online courses. Clear and open communication with your classmates and instructors, as well as staying focused on the course material, will be key to your success in this difficult time.

Related article from studentjob.co.uk : http://www.studentjob.co.uk/blog/5757-best-online-exam-help-top-five-websites-you-can-trust 

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Are Online Classes Worth It? 12 Pros & Cons Of Online Learning

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August, 02 2022
What is a Satire Essay and How Does It Work?

One of the most popular literary devices or genres is Satire. This genre is especially designed to criticize someone or group of people for their vices, wrongdoings, or shortcomings.


Usually, humor is used to highlight important political and cultural issues in a society. A satire article is a type essay that uses humor, sarcasm, and irony to ridicule a person, situation, or ideology. It pokes fun in an elite and sarcastic fashion at certain people or situations.


How to Write Satire Essays: Writing Tips

How do you write a satire article? It doesn't have to be difficult, even though it seems daunting. However, once you use the following tips, it can be an easy task to write a satire article.


Choose a relevant and original topic

This is why you will need to create a satire essay. Your first step is to pick a satirical essay topic. You may be assigned a topic by your professor or teacher in some instances, but you would need to create your topic.


Decide the topic of your essay. Depending on what you are interested in, you can choose to concentrate on either a political or societal situation.


However, it's a good idea to choose a topic you are already familiar with. This will make it easier to locate facts and evidence to support the views you hold.


Consider your audience

Your essay is the center of attention. You must consider your audience at every stage of the writing process. Your essay should be addressed to college professors or high school students.


Are professionals reading it or are you just a student? It is important to consider your audience and determine the right tone for your essay.


A casual tone is acceptable if your target audience is mostly friends and students. It's best to use a formal tone if your target audience is professionals.


Add humor!

What makes a humorous essay so engaging? It is the topic, or the writer's writing style that makes satire essays so interesting. Humor is the key ingredient to any satire essay. You want your audience to laugh at the absurdity or inanity of a person or situation. Irony, sarcasm or hyperbole are all great ways to accomplish this end.


These devices can be very effective if used in a thoughtful manner.


Be clear about the facts

Because satirical essays often use exaggeration and humor, it is crucial to write an essay that is straightforward. An essay that contains false or misleading information will not be accepted by the court of public opinion.


Therefore, facts should only be stated that are supported by strong evidence. If you want to give credibility, be sure to cite the source of your information after citing figures, theories, opinions, etc.


This would ensure your audience that your essay was credible. Avoid including arguments that you are unable to prove or find evidence.


Use the ELP Format

ELP format is a great tool to ensure that your satire essay will be professional and high-quality. ELP is an acronym that stands for ethos, logos, and pathos.


These three elements make up a large part of an essay and can either help or hinder your work. These elements are important and can be used in your essay.


Ethos informs readers about the topic at hand and their preexisting beliefs. To provide a foundation for readers, Ethos should be used as a tool in the introduction.


Logos give credibility to your work by providing facts and figures for the audience.


As the name implies, pathos will elicit the appropriate emotions and feelings from your audience. You can use this tool to invoke sadness, sympathy, anger or any other emotion.


Be tolerant

It is important to avoid making offensive statements in satire essays, even though they are often filled with irony or sarcasm.


Your audience will likely include people from all walks of life. Therefore, it is important not to make comments that could be considered discriminatory or offensive for a particular section.


The art of discerning the right line between humor and offensiveness is delicate and requires practice. You can ask teachers or colleagues to give you second opinions so that your essay doesn't offend.

Learn more at: https://proessays.net/blog/40-witty-topics-for-a-satirical-essay


July, 25 2022