In the perennial struggle between resources owners and resource exploiters, Mexico’s latest move surrounding its largest private oil discovery ever has echoes of many past battles. There are only a few countries in the world that have both the physical energy assets and the technological know-how to exploit it, such as the US, UK and Norway. Even other major producers such as Saudi Arabia, Russia, Iran and Venezuela had plenty of outside help before nationalisation took over; to say nothing of the new players to hydrocarbons such as Guyana or Ghana. So Mexico’s decision to designate its state oil firm Pemex as the sole operator of the Zama field over the private consortium (led by Houston-based Talos Energy) that made the discovery has plenty of precedent. And is also a chilling reminder that the battle between national pride and international experience will always play out.
The Zama field, located in Block 7 of the Sureste Basin in the Gulf of Mexico, was discovered in July 2017 from the first exploration well to be drilled by the private sector in the country. The Zama-1 well struck oil at a depth of nearly 170m, and subsequent appraisal wells estimate the total recoverable reserves at nearly a billion barrels. Talos Energy, which holds a 35% stake in the block, is the current operator, sharing it with consortium partners Sierra Oil and Gas (40%) and Premier Oil (25%). First oil is expected by 2022 and peak production should stand at around 100,000 b/d. In many ways, Zama was a game changer for the Mexican upstream industry. At the point of discovery, Mexican oil production had been waning and discoveries lacking; Zama was proof that there was still significant amounts of oil left to be found.
The fact that Zama was the result of the first private sector exploration ever (well, at least for in over 80 years) was key. The fact that it was a huge resource was icing on the cake. Because in 2013, the Energy Reform allowed private and foreign investor across the entire energy value chain in Mexico for the first time since 1938, breaking Pemex’s monopoly in an effort to combat what was seen then as a chronic decline in Mexican energy. On the downstream side, international fuel brands penetrated the market for the first time, setting up what are now lucrative fuel station networks. But the biggest impact was on the upstream side. In the years following the 2013 Energy Reform, the Mexican National Hydrocarbons Commission awarded 107 oil and gas exploration and production contracts to over 73 companies from 20 countries.
The Zama discovery was born out of this de-monopolisation drive, and the companies currently drilling wells and making discoveries across Mexico include those from as far as Thailand and Malaysia. The string of new discoveries that have followed Zama’s are the fruits of this labour. Pemex still plays a vital role in the country – including running one of the world’s largest crude hedging programmes – but its loss of relevance has rankled some nationalists. Which is why in 2018, when new President Andrés Manual López Obrador (AMLO) took office on a nationalist platform, issuance of new E&P contracts have slowed down to a near trickle and new crude auctions have been suspended, as AMLO’s administration tries to assert domestic interests. His stated goal is to return Pemex to glory, which will mean rolling back the energy reforms that (briefly) made Mexico an upstream investment darling between 2014 and 2018.
Zama – as the most high-profile of all the private-led discoveries so far – has been at the centre of this tug-of-war. There is some basis to the government’s decision to hand over Zama to Pemex; this is not just some flimsy asset-grab attempt. Since the Zama field shares the same reservoir as one belonging to Pemex, the dispute has raged over whether Talos or Pemex has operational rights. A unification process to establish a joint area has been underway since 2018, with a study commissioned by both parties concluding that Pemex has a slight majority share with 50.4% of the shared reservoir. That ordinarily should have led to a new joint venture recognising the shared resource, but instead Mexico has decided to name Pemex as sole operator. It is a decision that should send chills down the spine of other international firms.
Because if it could happen to Talos, then it could happen to Lukoil, which just agreed to acquire a 50% interest in the Area 4 Ichalkil and Pokoch fields in the Bay of Campeche from Fieldwood Energy. It could happen to Petronas, which has made a string of offshore discoveries including from the Polok-1 and Chinwol-1 wells in 2020. It could happen to Eni, which holds rights in six E&P blocks (six as the operator) in the Sureste Basin. It could happen to anyone, because the AMLO administration has indicated with this approach that it is ready to confront the frustration and concern of foreign investors in order to polish Pemex. This could bring Mexico in the crosshairs of the Biden administration, since Talos is an American firm and this could fly in the face of some terms in the new North American trade deal. And more concerning is whether Pemex even has the resources and skills to operate Zama. The energy reform in 2013 happened precisely because Pemex couldn’t deliver operationally. Six years on and not much has changed at Pemex, so will there be any difference beyond nationalistic pride? Talos has made the full investment at Zama so far, while Pemex has yet to drill a single well after cancelling plans in June at the reservoir. Indonesia attempted something similar; and despite grand ambitions, Pertamina is no Petronas and the Indonesian upstream sector has languished.
Time will tell if this is a one-off or a trend in Mexico. But odds are that it will be the latter, given the nationalist bent pursued by AMLO and his relatively high popularity. But this shouldn’t be a surprise to any international firm operating in the sector. It happens everywhere. It is currently happening in Guyana, which is currently debating new petroleum laws to give the state a greater share of oil revenue after ExxonMobil was attracted there on favourable terms to make blockbuster oil discoveries. It is at the heart of the crisis in Papua New Guinea where the new government is attempting to extricate better terms from ExxonMobil and Total after their LNG projects took off. It resulted in Eni being ordered by a Ghanian court to place 30% of the Sankofa field’s revenue in an escrow account after the Italian major defied Ghana’s request to combine its field with the neighbouring Afina field owned by Springfield. Competing national interests and commercial rights are reality in the upstream world. And if those signs coming out of Mexico are correct, then current private firms sitting on Mexican assets should be wary. At least until this attempt fails and a new politician initiates a U-turn.
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Everyone should always be mindful of gas safety. Although natural gas and liquid petroleum gas (LPG) don't immediately represent a hazard of poisoning, they present a significant risk of a fire or explosion. It is crucial to keep yourself safe by being aware of the risks and learning how to spot a gas leak.
Natural gas like practically all other energy sources is harmful if not handled properly. You may protect yourself and your loved ones by following a few basic safety precautions (and understanding what to do if you have a gas leak or have been exposed to one).Is Using Natural Gas In The Home Safe?
Natural gas is a reliable, safe power source when handled properly. Although burning natural gas emits some greenhouse gases, it is still a more environmentally friendly option than using other fossil fuels. But natural gas is a combustible substance. A natural gas leak in a home could result in a fire, and breathing it in could poison you with natural gas. It is important to use caution when exposed to natural gas, just as with electricity, gasoline, and other potentially hazardous energy sources.Is There A Gas Leak In Your Home?
If you suspect a gas leak, you should immediately call the National Gas Emergency Service number. Try to open a few windows to allow for airflow before doing so. Immediately leave the premises if you smell gas in a cellar. Our article will explain what to do in your home to assist you to remain safe in the case of a leak so that you are always ready.
Underground pipes used to carry the gas to buildings might cause external gas leaks. If you're outside a building and you smell gas, there probably is a leak, therefore you should call the National Gas Emergency Service.
Appliances that are broken or improperly installed frequently result in gas leaks in homes. Usually, the pipe entering your appliance is where the leak originates. If you've made sure the appliance is turned off, for example, by turning all the knobs on your stove to the off position, then a problem with the hose is probably to blame for your gas leak.
Any appliances you install must be done so by a qualified Gas Safe registered engineer and are given a regular gas safety check or service to assist reduce the danger of a gas leak brought on by a faulty appliance. Make sure to verify their accreditation on the Gas Safe Register website before work begins.How To Detect Gas Leaks?
Due to the lack of color and smell in most gases, natural gas companies typically add the chemical mercaptan to give it a specific smell. Your home frequently smells like sulphur or rotting eggs when the smell is present. If you spot this specific smell, it could be wiser to investigate the leak's origin or contact a technician.
If you hear a whizzing or whistling sound close to your gas line, you may be experiencing a serious gas leak. If the noise is coming from the area where your air conditioner is, it can be coming from a refrigerant line, a faulty valve, or a damaged compressor.
The best approach to determine whether you have a gas leak is to buy a gas leak detector. You have a variety of gas leak detection options. Sensors and leak detectors come in a wide variety. When shopping online, it's important to buy a detector that can detect several different gases. To keep you and your family safe at home, explore different options for gas leak detectors and sensors.
When a stovetop burner is lit, the flame is often blue. The existence of a gas that is removing oxygen from the atmosphere could be indicated by orange or red flames emerging from your stove burner.
A spoonful of soap and a glass of water combined to create a concentrated solution. Spray the soap-and-water solution on the area that is thought to be leaking, then look for bubbles to form. It suggests the area is experiencing a gas leak.
Having a helium tank can be helpful if you often arrange or plan big parties. A portable helium tank may be easily filled, which is a blessing. You can bring it to a shop to refill it or order online from a gas service provider store that offers helium gas tank services.
Refill Your Portable Helium Tank
Some portable helium tanks cannot be filled again. A single-use tank that is being attempted to be refilled has the potential of bursting, inflicting harm on everyone around. If you have a refillable tank, the first thing to do is call nearby businesses to determine whether they provide refill services. The store where you bought the first tank might be able to provide you with a refill. There are other places you can acquire a portable helium tank refill if the store is closed or if you have relocated.
Find local gas and welding shops, party supply stores, and balloon shops by conducting a web search. If these businesses provide helium tank refilling, they frequently list the service on their website. Call nearby businesses to verify that they can fill the tank and to learn what hours they are open to performing the service. Additionally, this provides a chance to contrast helium pricing.
Once you've located a spot, bring the tank there to be refilled. Make sure to take the tank's balloon inflator attachment off before transporting the tank, replacing it with the steel cap. As you are driving, check to make sure the tank is stable and won't fall or roll.
Refillable Helium Tank vs. Disposable Helium Tank
A reusable helium tank may be less expensive than a refillable one. However, if you host gatherings frequently, a refillable cylinder can be a more economical choice. Refillable tanks are an excellent solution for a single event and are available for rental at several party supply retailers.
If you decide to use a disposable tank, keep in mind that you cannot just throw it away. Be sure to properly dump the tank when you've finished using it. Check with your recycling company to determine if doorstep service is an option. Alternately, look up steel recycling businesses in your neighborhood. When disposing of an inflated portable helium tank, make sure to follow all federal, state, and municipal laws.
Considerations Before Using A Portable Helium Tank
It may take some time to receive a refill, and not all stores are open on weekends and holidays. Thus, before an event, make sure you have enough helium to satisfy your needs. Approximately 0.15 cubic feet of helium should be used for each little 7-inch balloon. The amount of helium needed to fill an 18-inch foil balloon is roughly 0.44 cubic feet, whereas an 11-inch balloon requires roughly 0.5 cubic feet.
It's crucial to use and store your portable helium tank carefully if you plan to buy one. Children should not be let near uninflated balloons or tanks because both are potentially dangerous. Helium can hurt you if it is sprayed into your mouth or face because of the pressure. Use helium outside or in a room with good ventilation. Don't drop or damage the cylinder in any way.
Make sure the space is dry when you store the canister because moisture can cause helium tanks to corrode. Temperatures in the storage area shouldn't get above 120 degrees Fahrenheit.
As the core component, style of the wood pellet mill for sale has a great influence on improving the result and high quality of wood pellet production, lowering power consumption, and also minimizing manufacturing expenses.
At the same time, the timber pellet maker mold and mildew are likewise one of the most conveniently used parts. Consequently, it is very crucial for wood pellets producers to understand the layout and application of ring die, and also to make the appropriate selection, rational usage, and also reliable upkeep of ring die.
The following is a quick evaluation of the style, option, use, and also upkeep of the ring die for a referral.
1, Decision of ring pass away diameter as well as ring pass away efficient pressing size specifications
a, The size and also efficient width of the ring die is the main specifications of the wood pellet device die
According to the global timber pellet equipment parameters and also concern series to figure out the ring die size collection, RICHI mainly has the complying with the collection of timber pellet machines:
MZLH320 Wood Pellet Machine
MZLH350 Wood Pellet Making Machine
MZLH420 Wood Pellet Mill
MZLH520 Wood Pellet Maker
MZLH768 Wood Pellet Press
MZLH858 Wood Pelletizer
According to the proportion of equal practical pushing location as well as an equal power, determine the reliable size of the ring passes away.
b, Decision on the rotational speed of the press roller of the wood pellet device
The rotational speed of the journalism roller is associated with the geometric parameters of the timber pellet equipment itself. According to the information detection of the technical criteria of the global pellet equipment, for the ring pass away pellet equipment with 2 pressing rollers, the direct rate at the internal diameter of the ring die is 6-12m/ s better. This is additionally the distinction between the rate of the sawdust pellet machine as well as the feed pellet machine.
The rate of the roller of the timber pellet equipment directly affects the thickness of the material in the pelletizing chamber and also the time for the material to travel through the die opening, which in turn impacts the outcome of the pellet device as well as the top quality of the pellets. If the line speed is too high, under the exact same output, the ring die produces much fewer bits per change, and also the product in the granulation area is little and also unevenly dispersed, which might cause product mistakes, alternate granulation, loose fragments with different lengths, and a large amount of powder. Can't even powder. A lower ring dies line rate can create pellets as well as can produce better pellets, yet the throughput is relatively low.
c, Determination of the size of journalism roller
The standard pelletizing principle for pellet formation is received in the figure listed below. The timber pellets can get rid of the resistance of the material going through the aperture of the ring die through the shared extrusion force between the ring pass away as well as the pressing roller, so as to attain the function of granulation.
Under the same ring dies, the larger the size of the stress roller, the greater the range of triangular extrusion developed between the ring die and the stress roller, which is more conducive to the extrusion result.
In theory, talking, the diameter of the pressure roller of a solitary roller can be the largest, as well as the extrusion time, and also extrusion impact must be the most effective. However, in the procedure of the wood pellet mill, one of the most force in between the pressing roller and the ring die is transferred between the major shaft, the bearing, and the empty shaft, so the mechanical framework of the single-roller granulator is coarse, so it can just be used on a little experimental granulator. It is tough to be utilized in large-scale pellet mills, and also the double-roller sawdust pellet mill has actually come to be the most pre-owned version in the pellet.
2. Ring pass away product and warmth therapy
wood pellet machine ring die
Wood pellet maker molds are normally made from carbon steel, alloy steel as well as stainless-steel through forging, reduction, exploration, warmth therapy, and various other processes. The product utilized in the ring pass away and also each handling procedure have a straight influence on its service life, granulation high quality as well as the outcome.
Carbon Steel-- Heat Treated Firmness HRC45-50. The wear resistance and deterioration resistance are reasonably poor and are essentially gotten rid of.
Alloy Steel-- Warmth treated with a firmness above HRC50. The thorough mechanical buildings are high, as well as the usage rate is the highest possible.
Stainless steel-- Great hardness and also toughness, total quenching, as well as good wear, and also rust resistance. But its high price has actually dragged down general use.
3. Ring pass away hole structure, compression proportion
ring die opening
Typical timber pellet maker molds have straight holes, decompression holes, outer conical openings and also inner conical holes. The major criteria are:
Die opening size, ring pass away density, ring die efficient density, decompression opening size, pass away opening facility range, wall surface thickness between die openings, ring pass away diameter, and ring pass away reliable width.
The compression ratio is the ratio of the effective thickness of the ring passing away to the diameter of the die hole. It is an indicator of the extrusion toughness of wood pellets. The greater the compression ratio, the more powerful the extruded particles. Therefore, the die hole of the ring die is determined according to the different raw materials of wood.
4. Usage and also maintenance of wood pellet maker mold
Right adjustment of the working gap in between the ring pass away and journalism roller is vital to the use of the ring die. Usually talking, the void in between the ring die as well as the pressing roller is between 0.1-0.3 mm.
When the space is too huge, the machine will certainly be obstructed as a result of not enough extrusion force. If the space is also small, it is very easy to damage the ring die and the pressing roller. For the operator, it is needed to have useful operation experience and be able to masterfully pick and change the gap of the ring die roll. The adjustment work needs to be grasped with a long-term granulator production technique.
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