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International expansions for Saudi Aramco – the largest oil company in the world – are not uncommon. But up to this point, those expansions have followed a certain logic: to create entrenched demand for Saudi crude in the world’s largest consuming markets. But Saudi champion’s latest expansion move defies, or perhaps, changes that logic, as Aramco returns to Europe. And not just any part of Europe, but Eastern Europe – an area of the world dominated by Russia – as Saudi Aramco acquires downstream assets from Poland’s PKN Orlen and signs quite a significant crude supply deal. How is this important? Let us examine.
First, the deal itself and its history. As part of the current Polish government’s plan to strengthen its national ‘crown jewels’ in line with its more nationalistic stance, state energy firm PKN Orlen announced plans to purchase its fellow Polish rival (and also state-owned) Grupa Lotos. The outright purchase fell afoul of EU anti-competition rules, which meant that PKN Orlen had to divest some Lotos assets in order to win approval of the deal. Some of the Lotos assets – including 417 fuel stations – are being sold to Hungary’s MOL, which will also sign a long-term fuel supply agreement with PKN Orlen for the newly-acquired sites, while PKN Orlen will gain fuel retail assets in Hungary and Slovakia as part of the deal. But, more interestingly, PKN Orlen has chosen to sell a 30% stake in the Lotos Gdansk refinery in Poland (with a crude processing capacity of 210,000 bd) to Saudi Aramco, alongside a stake in a fuel logistic subsidiary and jet fuel joint venture supply arrangement between Lotos and BP. In return, PKN Orlen will also sign a long-term contract to purchase between 200,000-337,000 b/d of crude from Aramco, which is an addition to the current contract for 100,000 b/d of Saudi crude that already exists. At a maximum, that figure will cover more than half of Poland’s crude oil requirements, but PKN Orlen has also said that it plans to direct some of that new supply to several of its other refineries elsewhere in Lithuania and the Czech Republic.
For Saudi Aramco, this is very interesting. While Aramco has always been a presence in Europe as a major crude supplier, its expansion plans over the past decade have been focused elsewhere. In the US, where it acquired full ownership of the Motiva joint venture from Shell in 2017. In doing so, it acquired control of Port Arthur, the largest refinery in North America, and has been on a petrochemicals-focused expansion since. In Asia, where Aramco has been busy creating significant nodes for its crude – in China, in India and in Malaysia (to serve the Southeast Asia and facilitate trade). And at home, where the focus has on expanding refining and petrochemical capacity, and strengthen its natural gas position. So this expansion in Europe – a mature market with a low ceiling for growth, even in Eastern Europe, is interesting. Why Poland, and not East or southern Africa? The answer seems fairly obvious: Russia.
The current era of relatively peaceful cooperation between Saudi Arabia and Russia in the oil sphere is recent. Very recent. It was not too long ago that Saudi Arabia and Russia were locked in a crude price war, which had devastating consequences, and ultimately led to the détente through OPEC+ that presaged an unprecedented supply control deal. That was through necessity, as the world faced the far ranging impact of the Covid-19 pandemic. But remove that lens of cooperation, and Saudi Arabia and Russia are actual rivals. With the current supply easing strategy through OPEC+ gradually coming to an end, this could remove the need for the that club (by say 2H 2022). And with Russia not being part of OPEC itself – where Saudi Arabia is the kingpin – cooperation is no longer necessary once the world returns to normality.
So the Polish deal is canny. In a statement, Aramco stated that ‘the investments will widen (our) presence in the European downstream sector and further expand (our) crude imports into Poland, which aligns with PKN Orlen’s strategy of diversifying its energy supplies’. Which hints at the other geopolitical aspect in play. Europe’s major reliance on Russia for its crude and natural gas has been a minefield – see the recent price chaos in the European natural gas markets – and countries that were formally under the Soviet sphere of influence have been trying to wean themselves off reliance from a politically unpredictable neighbour. Poland’s current disillusion with EU membership (at least from the ruling party) are well-documented, but its entanglement with Russia is existential. The Cold War is not more than 30 years gone.
For Saudi Aramco, the move aligns with its desire to optimise export sales from its Red Sea-facing terminals Yanbu, Jeddah, Shuqaiq and Rabigh, which have closer access to Europe through the Suez Canal. It is for the same reason that Aramco’s trading subsidiary ATC recently signed a deal with German refiner/trader Klesch Group for a 3-year supply of 110,000 b/d crude. It would seem that Saudi Arabia is anticipating an eventual end to the OPEC+ era of cooperative and a return to rivalry. And in a rivalry, that means having to make power moves. The PKN Orlen deal is a power move, since it brings Aramco squarely in Russia’s backyard, directly displacing Russian market share. Not just in Poland, but in other markets as well. And with a geopolitical situation that is fragile – see the recent tensions about Russian military build-up at the Ukrainian borders – that plays into Aramco’s hands. European sales make up only a fraction of the daily flotilla of Saudi crude to enters international markets, but even though European consumption is in structural decline, there are still volumes required.
How will Russia react? Politically, it is on the backfoot, but its entrenched positions in Europe allows it to hold plenty of sway. European reservations about the Putin administration and climate change goals do not detract from commercial reality that Europe needs energy now. The debate of the Nord Stream 2 pipeline is proof of that. Russian crude freed up from being directed to Eastern Europe means a surplus to sell elsewhere. Which means that Russia will be looking at deals with other countries and refiners, possibly in markets with Aramco is dominant. That level of tension won’t be seen for a while – these deals takes months and years to complete – but we can certainly expect that agitation to be reflected in upcoming OPEC+ discussions. The club recently endorsed another expected 400,000 b/d of supply easing for January. Reading the tea leaves – of which the PKN Orlen is one – makes it sound like there will not be much more cooperation beyond April, once the supply deal is anticipated to end.
End of Article
- Crude price trading range: Brent – US$86-88/b, WTI – US$84-86/b
- Crude oil benchmarks globally continue their gain streak for a fifth week, as the market bounces back from the lows seen in early December as the threat of the Omicron virus variant fades and signs point to tightening balances on strong consumption
- This could set the stage for US$100/b oil by midyear – as predicted by several key analysts – as consumption rebounds ahead of summer travel and OPEC+ remains locked into its gradual consumption easing schedule
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What distinguishes those who got into the best universities in the world from the rest? What qualities are looked for in young people from all over the world at Harvard, Oxford, and Stanford? How do you develop an individual strategy for getting into your desired university? What aspects of your biography should be emphasized when preparing an application? How do you write the "99 papers reviews" that will make you stand out among the hundreds of competitors? Do letters of recommendation help? At a meeting with students of the Ukrainian Leadership Academy at the Oswitoria Hub Ivan Primachenko, co-founder of the online education platform Prometheus, who studied at The Ukrainian Emerging Leaders Program at Stanford, talked about this.
I have hundreds of acquaintances, who have deep knowledge that would allow them to enter a prestigious western university, but they do not. They just do not believe that it is possible," shrugs speaker Ivan Primachenko. - There is a stereotype that the "elite," the "chosen," and the "bigwigs" get into Oxford, Harvard, or Stanford. But the example of some other acquaintances and friends proves that this is not the case - the secret is to choose the right strategy. Shall we begin?
Choose different schools, different curricula. If in the first year you have no luck - try the second and third year. If you "give up" after the first time - don't say that you "failed". Personally, I succeeded the second time, and I still consider it great luck.
Study what the admissions office is looking for and don't get hung up on tests
Every school puts something different into the concept of a "top applicant. But without exception, everyone hopes that you will be the one who makes them famous: the founder of a cool company, a community organization that will change the world for the better, a scientist who will win the Nobel Prize. Such graduates not only build their reputations, but also make significant philanthropic contributions.
Universities are a kind of investment fund in human capital. They make "bets" just like people who invest in startups. Therefore, universities have subtle and sensitive mechanisms for selecting an investment target. They weigh your grades, the results of standardized tests that test your potential. The principle is: "If a person shows good results now, he will also hold himself to a high standard in the future. But the truth of life is that grades from Ukrainian schools will not be taken seriously if, for example, you are applying for an American baccalaureate.
Unsurprisingly, everyone gets hung up on preparing for standardized tests. That, too, is a mistake. I recommend looking at the statistics available to everyone about what the average score on standardized tests is for those who apply to that particular program, but not trying to "outdo everyone else" and reach the maximum, but leaving the energy for more important things. Namely, writing a curriculum vitae and an essay.
The purpose of a CV and essay is to showcase your background outside of grades and tests. They are even more meaningful than grades. Please don't make the classic mistake of having too much text. The committee is not going to read your most beautiful 10-page CV. The CV is used solely to get a sense of who you are and what you are about in 30 seconds. So it is in those 30 seconds that you need to explain to people exactly why you are awesome.
In your CV, people will be looking for what you have accomplished. When I wrote my own at Stanford, I didn't list my title, I gathered facts: how many hundreds of thousands of users on our platform, how many courses we have, what partners with world-famous names we're proud of. So, don't just write that you're fundraising, but what kind of donors have fundraised. Facts, just facts.